Developing conductive and electrocatalytic mediators in Li-S batteries

Lithium sulfide (Li-S) batteries are considered a promising and efficient energy storage system because of their high energy density (2600 Wh kg-1) and low sulfur material cost. However, numerous obstacles to the practical implementation of Li–S batteries remain, including low sulfur conductivity, the shuttle effect, and the requirement for an adequate volume change (80%) of sulfur during charging and discharging operations. These have limited the applicability of Li–S batteries.