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166,989 articles from EurekAlert

"Stretching rack" for cells

The behavior of cells is controlled by their environment, physical factors such as pressure or tension have an effect. Researchers at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and the University of Heidelberg are using a 3D printing process to produce micro-frames on whose four pillars a cell rests. If a hydrogel inside the framework swells and pushes the pillars apart, the cell must "stretch"....

160 genes linked to brain shrinkage in study of 45,000 adults

An analysis conducted in 45,000 adults mainly of European ancestry associated 160 genes with brain shrinkage seen on MRI. The analysis included researchers from the Joe R. and Teresa Lozano Long School of Medicine at The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio.

3D printed nasal swabs work as well as commercial swabs for COVID-19 diagnostic testing

A multisite clinical trial led by the University of South Florida Health (USF Health) Morsani College of Medicine and its primary hospital affiliate Tampa General Hospital (TGH) provides the first evidence that 3D-printed alternative nasal swabs work as well for COVID-19 diagnostic testing as commercial synthetic flocked nasal swabs. Given the ongoing need for widespread COVID-19 testing, the...

A better alternative to Phthalates?

In collaboration with the Medical University of South Carolina, researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) analyzed urine samples from pregnant women to look for the presence of DINCH, which is short for di(isononyl)cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate. They found concentrations of DINCH in most of the urine samples but no evidence of effects in lab assays on two hormones,...

A clearer view of what makes glass rigid

Scientists led by the Institute of Industrial Science at the University of Tokyo used computer simulations to better understand the mechanical transition in glassy materials. They found that a system-wide network provides the backbone that gives glass its strength. This work may lead to advances in the production of stronger glass for smartphones and other applications.

Adequate levels of vitamin D reduces complications, death among COVID-19 patients

Hospitalized COVID-19 patients who were vitamin D sufficient, with a blood level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D of at least 30 ng/mL (a measure of vitamin D status), had a significant decreased risk for adverse clinical outcomes including becoming unconscious, hypoxia (body starved for oxygen) and death. In addition, they had lower blood levels of an inflammatory marker (C-reactive protein) and higher...

An app monitors cancer patients' health status and rewards participation

Gamification is becoming increasingly common in educational settings, but can also be used in other fields such as health. Researchers at the Complutense University of Madrid and the University of Zaragoza have developed the Close2U application, which enables healthcare staff to monitor cancer patients' mood and physical discomfort using daily questionnaires. In return for the information they...

An area of the brain where tumor cells shelter from chemotherapy in childhood leukaemia

Sometimes, the central nervous system harbours tumour cells that elude treatment and thus become one of the main sources of relapse. Research led by the Complutense University of Madrid has identified one of these locations in which the cells remain protected: the stroma of the choroid plexus, a structure in the brain ventricles responsible for the production of cerebrospinal fluid.

An enhanced ruthenium-based catalyst for primary amine synthesis

Researchers at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) have developed a high-performance reusable ruthenium-based catalyst for the production of primary amines. Their method represents a major advance for the development of efficient catalysts that enable selective conversion of alcohols into primary amines under mild reaction conditions.

Anxious, moody older adults are vulnerable to worse cognitive function

Some older adults with the neuropathology that causes dementia have more cognitive resilience than others, reports a new study. The reason: their personalities. Individuals with higher neuroticism -- a greater tendency towards anxiety, worry, moodiness and impulsivity -- were more likely to have worse cognitive function. Individuals who were self-disciplined, organized, high achievers and...

Bird genes are multitaskers, say scientists

Scientists from the University of Sheffield have found that although male and female birds have an almost identical set of genes, they function differently in each sex through a mechanism called alternative splicing.

Cocaine addiction: Impact of genetic mutations elucidated

Cocaine addiction is a chronic disorder with a high rate of relapse for which no effective treatment is currently available. Scientists from the Institut Pasteur, the CNRS, Inserm and the Paris Public Hospital Network (AP-HP) recently demonstrated that two gene mutations involved in the conformation of nicotinic receptors in the brain appear to play a role in various aspects of cocaine addiction.

Coldest Northern Hemisphere temperature, first recorded by UW, officially confirmed

Nearly 30 years after recording a temperature of minus 93.2 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 69.6 Celsius) in Greenland, the measurement has been verified by the World Meteorological Organization as the coldest recorded temperature in the Northern Hemisphere. The measurement was first recorded by a University of Wisconsin-Madison Antarctic Meteorological Research Center Automatic Weather Station in...

Comparing face coverings in controlling expired particles

Laboratory tests of surgical and N95 masks by researchers at UC Davis show that they do cut down the amount of aerosolized particles emitted during breathing, talking and coughing. Tests of homemade cloth face coverings, however, show that the fabric itself releases a large amount of fibers into the air, underscoring the importance of washing them. The work is published Sept. 24 in Scientific...

Contact tracing study results recommend consistent wearing of masks, handwashing, and social distancing in public to protect against SARS-CoV-2 infection

A contact tracing study presented at this year's ESCMID Conference on Coronavirus Disease (ECCVID) confirms the effectiveness of wearing of masks in public, handwashing, and social distancing to protect against SARS-CoV-2 infection. The study is by Assistant Professor Direk Limmathurotsakul, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand, and Centre for Tropical Medicine and Global Health, University of...

COVID-19 spurs anxious, upsetting dreams

The anxiety, stress and worry brought on by COVID-19 is not limited to daytime hours. The pandemic is affecting our dreams as well, infusing more anxiety and negative emotions into dreams and spurring dreams about the virus itself, particularly among women, according to research published by the American Psychological Association.