132 articles from MONDAY 9.9.2019

How we make decisions depends on how uncertain we are

A new study on how we use reward information for making choices shows how humans and monkeys adopt their decision-making strategies depending on the uncertainty of information present. The findings challenge one of the most fundamental assumptions in economics, neuroeconomics and choice theory that decision-makers typically evaluate risky options in a multiplicative way when in fact this only...

Acute periodontal disease bacteria love colon and dirt microbes

Mythbuster: The idea that bacterial collaborations within microbiomes, like in the mouth, have evolved to be generous and exclusive very much appears to be wrong. In an extensive experiment, lavish collaborations ensued between random microbes. And some bacteria from the same microbiome were stingy with one another.

The diet-microbiome connection in inflammatory bowel disease

A change in diet is a go-to strategy for treating inflammatory bowel diseases like Crohn's. In dogs with a similar illness, researchers tracked specific changes in the microbiome as the pets went into remission. The team's findings, which mirror what is seen in children with Crohn's, could inform the design of improved therapeutic diets.

Fermilab achieves world-record field strength for accelerator magnet

To build the next generation of powerful proton accelerators, scientists need the strongest magnets possible to steer particles close to the speed of light around a ring. For a given ring size, the higher the beam's energy, the stronger the accelerator's magnets need to be to keep the beam on course.

NASA estimates Hurricane Dorian's massive rainfall track

On Monday morning, September 9, Hurricane Dorian was a post-tropical storm after a mid-latitude weather front and cold seas had altered its tropical characteristics over the weekend. NASA compiled data on Hurricane Dorian and created a map that showed the heavy rainfall totals it left in its wake from the Bahamas to Canada.

Birds string together meaningless sounds to make 'words'

A new study sheds light on whether animal vocalizations, like human words, are constructed from smaller building blocks. By analyzing calls of the Australian chestnut-crowned babbler, the researchers have for the first time identified the meaning-generating building blocks of a non-human communication system.

'Superblocks' model could prevent almost 700 premature deaths every year in Barcelona

The city of Barcelona could prevent 667 premature deaths every year by implementing the proposed "Superblocks" project in its entirety. This result would be achieved mainly as a result of decreased air pollution (NO2), but reductions in traffic noise and mitigation of heat island effects would also be contributing factors. These were some of the conclusions of a recent study published in...

Good at math? It means little if you're not confident

Being good at math relates to better financial and medical outcomes -- unless you don't have confidence in your own abilities with numbers, new research suggests. In two studies, researchers found that the key to success in personal finances and dealing with a complex disease was a match between a person's math abilities and how comfortable and assured he or she felt using those skills.

To reduce pollution, policymakers should broaden focus beyond smokestacks

Emissions from air pollutants are associated with premature mortality. Between 2008 and 2014, air pollution health damage from fine particulate matter exposure fell by 20 percent in the United States. There are four sectors in the U.S. economy that together are responsible for over 75 percent of air pollution damage but contribute less than 20 percent to national GDP: agriculture, utilities,...