117 articles from MONDAY 7.10.2019

Dual approach needed to save sinking cities and bleaching corals

Local conservation can boost the climate resilience of coastal ecosystems, species and cities and buy them precious time in their fight against sea-level rise, ocean acidification and warming temperatures, a new paper by scientists at Duke University and Fudan University suggests.

Analysis of US labor data suggests 'reskilling' workers for a 'feeling economy'

Being able to solve problems and analyze data will not be the keys to your success in the future, says marketing professor Roland Rust at the University of Maryland's Robert H. Smith School of Business. Artificial intelligence will soon have that covered. If you expect to have a viable career, you better get in touch with your emotions, he says, because the "Feeling Economy" is coming.

Artemis, meet ARTEMIS: Pursuing Sun science at the moon

By 2024, NASA will land astronauts, including the first woman and next man, on the Moon as part of the Artemis lunar exploration program. This won't be the first time NASA takes the name Artemis to the Moon though. Two robotic spacecraft orbiting the Moon today were initially known as ARTEMIS—short for Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the...

Revamped crew scheduling model cuts airline delays by as much as 30%

Delays and disruptions in airline operations annually result in billions of dollars of additional costs to airlines, passengers and the economy. Airlines strive to mitigate these costs by creating schedules that are less likely to get disrupted or schedules that are easy to repair when there are disruptions—new research in the INFORMS journal Transportation Science has found a solution using a...

Scientists invent new technology to streamline drug discovery

George Mason University researchers have discovered the exact location where two proteins responsible for hiding cancer cells from the immune system bind. This discovery provides a novel approach to developing new cancer immunotherapy medicines that can be administered as a pill, compared to existing intravenous therapeutics. The findings were published in July 2019 in the Journal of Biological...

Voltage gated calcium channels 'read' electric patterns in embryos to create cartilage and bone

Scientists have revealed how the electrical patterns formed within an embryo initiate a cascade of molecular changes that culminate in the development of cartilage and bone. Prior studies have shown these electrical patterns appear like blueprints of the tissues and organs that eventually take shape as the embryo matures. The new study demonstrates that voltage gated calcium channels 'read' the...

Costs of natural disasters are increasing at the high end

While the economic cost of natural disasters has not increased much on average, averages can be deceptive. The costs of major disasters like hurricanes Katrina, Maria and Dorian or the massive tornado swarms in the Midwest have increased to a disproportionately larger extent than those of lesser events, and these major disasters have become far more expensive, according to an international team of...

New silk materials can wrinkle into detailed patterns, then unwrinkle to be 'reprinted'

Researchers at Tufts University School of Engineering have developed silk materials that can wrinkle into highly detailed patterns—including words, textures and images as intricate as a QR code or a fingerprint. The patterns take about one second to form, are stable, but can be erased by flooding the surface of the silk with vapor, allowing the researchers to "reverse" the printing and start...

Ancient Maya canals and fields show early and extensive impacts on tropical forests

New evidence in Belize shows the ancient Maya responded to population and environmental pressures by creating massive agricultural features in wetlands, potentially increasing atmospheric CO2 and methane through burn events and farming, according to geographical research at The University of Texas at Austin published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Early humans evolved in ecosystems unlike any found today

To understand the environmental pressures that shaped human evolution, scientists must first piece together the details of the ancient plant and animal communities that our fossil ancestors lived in over the past 7 million years. Because putting together the puzzle of millions-of-years-old ecosystems is a difficult task, many studies have reconstructed the environments by drawing analogies with...

Archaea hold clues to ancient ocean temperatures

Solving a decades-old mystery, Stanford researchers have discovered proteins that enable hardy microbes called archaea to toughen up their membranes when waters are overly warm. Finding these proteins could help scientists piece together the state of Earth's climate going back millions of years to when those archaea were cruising the ancient oceans.

Voltage gated calcium channels 'read' electric patterns in embryos to create cartilage and bone

Scientists at Allen Discovery Center at Tufts University and Harvard Medical School have revealed how, in the case of limb formation, the electrical patterns formed within an embryo initiate a cascade of molecular changes that culminate in the development of cartilage and bone. The study, published today in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), helps answer a central question in...

Big data reveals extraordinary unity underlying life's diversity

From microscopic algae to elephants, life has devised countless ways to thrive in every environment on the planet. But while biologists have tended to focus on the many varied forms that species have evolved, the age of Big Data offers an unprecedented view of some surprisingly common features shared by all creatures great and small.

Saturn overtakes Jupiter as host to most moons in solar system

The gas giant has 82 moons, surpassing the 79 known to orbit its larger neighbourSaturn has taken over from Jupiter as host to the most moons in the solar system after astronomers spotted 20 more lumps of rock orbiting the ringed planet.It brings the number of Saturnian moons to 82, surpassing the 79 that are known to orbit Jupiter, its larger, inner neighbour. Continue...

Revamped crew scheduling model cuts airline delays by as much as 30%

Delays and disruptions in airline operations annually result in billions of dollars of additional costs to airlines, passengers and the economy. Airlines strive to mitigate these costs by creating schedules that are less likely to get disrupted or schedules that are easy to repair when there are disruptions -- new research has found a solution using a mathematical optimization model.