223 articles from MONDAY 9.12.2019

New Laser Transmitter to Enable International Gravitational Wave Observatory

This blog post originated in the 2018 Science Mission Directorate Science and Technology Report. PROJECT Laser Transmitter for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) Mission KEY POINTS A highly stable and robust laser design is a key subsystem required for the LISA observatory. By leveraging lessons learned from previous missions and the latest technologies in photonics packaging...

Ice in Motion: Satellites Capture Decades of Change

Portal origin URL: Ice in Motion: Satellites Capture Decades of ChangePortal origin nid: 456417Published: Monday, December 9, 2019 - 16:30Featured (stick to top of list): noPortal text teaser: New time-lapse videos of Earth's glaciers and ice sheets as seenfrom space, some spanning nearly 50 years, are providing new insights into howthe planet's frozen...

Breakthrough in 'distributed deep learning'

Computer scientists, using a divide-and-conquer approach that leverages the power of compressed sensing, have shown they can train the equivalent of a 100 billion-parameter distributed deep learning network on a single machine in less than 35 hours for product search and similar extreme classification problems.

Lighting up cardiovascular problems using nanoparticles

Heart disease and stroke are the world's two most deadly diseases, causing over 15 million deaths in 2016 according to the World Health Organization. A key underlying factor in both of these global health crises is the common condition, atherosclerosis, or the build-up of fatty deposits, inflammation and plaque on the walls of blood vessels. By the age of 40, around half of us will have this...

Researchers identify 'Achilles' heel' of drug-resistant superbug

A deadly superbug that infects an estimated 54,500 Americans a year has a secret weapon, a protein, that allows it to defy antibiotic treatment and immune system attacks. However, the secret is out now that researchers at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth) have identified the protein that acts as a defense mechanism for vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Their...

Dozens feared dead in eruption of New Zealand volcano

A volcano on a New Zealand island erupted Monday with a towering blast of ash and scalding steam as tourists were exploring the moon-like surface, killing five people and leaving perhaps two dozen others missing and presumed dead. Eighteen others were rescued, some of them severely burned.

Predicting a protein's behavior from its appearance

Proteins are the building blocks of life and play a key role in all biological processes. Understanding how they interact with their environment is therefore vital to developing effective therapeutics and the foundation for designing artificial cells.

Acoustic focusing to amass microplastics in water

Microplastics are receiving a lot of attention lately due to their difficulty in removal from the environment. Sieves and filtration are currently the predominant way to capture microplastics in water. However, this is impractical because filters clog easily and regularly need to be cleaned or replaced. Another issue is that it has been impossible to collect anything smaller than 0.3 mm, the size...

The Antarctic: Study provides data about the structure of the icy continent

The Antarctic is one of the parts of Earth that we know the least about. Due to the massive ice shield, the collection of geophysical information on site is extremely difficult and expensive. Satellite data from the European Space Agency (ESA) has now been used as the basis for new insights on the deep structure of the continent. Scientists from Kiel University (CAU) recently published their...

A tech jewel: Converting graphene into diamond film

Can two layers of the "king of the wonder materials," i.e. graphene, be linked and converted to the thinnest diamond-like material, the "king of the crystals?" Researchers of the Center for Multidimensional Carbon Materials (CMCM) within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS, South Korea) have reported in Nature Nanotechnology the first experimental observation of a chemically induced conversion of...

Green hydrogen: Research to enhance efficiency

Laboratory experiments and a parabolic flight campaign have enabled an international team of researchers from the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) to gain new insights into water electrolysis, in which hydrogen is obtained from water by applying electric energy. Water electrolysis could play a key role in the energy transition if efficiency improvements can be achieved. The findings...

Nanowire detects Abrikosov vortices

Researchers from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, and the Institute of Solid State Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences have demonstrated the possibility of detecting Abrikosov vortices penetrating through a superconductor-ferromagnet interface. The device considered in their study, published in Scientific Reports, is a ferromagnetic nanowire...

New function for plant enzyme could lead to green chemistry

Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory have discovered a new function in a plant enzyme that could have implications for the design of new chemical catalysts. The enzyme catalyzes, or initiates, one of the cornerstone chemical reactions needed to synthesize a wide array of organic molecules, including those found in lubricants, cosmetics, and those used as raw...