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160,468 articles from EurekAlert

Highest peak power and excellent stability

Optical amplifiers based on chirped pulse amplification (CPA) are used to generate high intensity pulses. In the CPA scheme, a weak temporally stretched seed pulse is amplified to high energy in a laser amplifier and finally re-compressed resulting in an ultrashort pulse of very high intensity. Applying this concept a new system was developed at MBI delivering few-ps pulses at 2 μm wavelength...

How do bacteria build up natural products?

The active agents of many drugs are natural products, so called because often only microorganisms are able to produce the complex structures. Similar to the production line in a factory, large enzyme complexes put these active agent molecules together. A team of the Technical University of Munich (TUM) and the Goethe University Frankfurt has now succeeded in investigating the basic mechanisms of...

How does Earth sustain its magnetic field?

Life as we know it could not exist without Earth's magnetic field and its ability to deflect dangerous ionizing particles. It is continuously generated by the motion of liquid iron in Earth's outer core, a phenomenon called the geodynamo. Despite its fundamental importance, many questions remain unanswered about the geodynamo's origin. New work examines how the presence of lighter elements in the...

Innovations for sustainability in a post-pandemic future

The COVID-19 pandemic has thrust the world into turmoil and disrupted the status quo, but it is also providing opportunities for innovation in the way we live and work. According to the latest report released by The World in 2050 (TWI2050) initiative, the crisis can provide an opportunity to create sustainable societies with higher levels of well-being for all.

IU School of Medicine study paves way for earlier autism diagnosis in Indiana

Led by Nancy Swigonski, MD and Mary Ciccarelli, MD, a team of faculty at Indiana University School of Medicine have developed a statewide early ASD screening and evaluation system in the primary care setting showing success in improving access to evaluations and lowering the age of diagnosis. This study, published July 6 in Pediatrics, is the first of its kind in the U.S. to include health care...

Light a critical factor in limiting carbon uptake, especially in the north

A new Columbia Engineering study demonstrates that even when temperatures warm and cold stress is limited, light is still a major factor in limiting carbon uptake of northern high latitudes. The team analyzed satellite observations, field measurements, and model simulations and showed that there is a prevalent radiation limitation on carbon uptake in northern ecosystems, especially in autumn.

Low-threshold topological nanolasers based on the second-order corner state

Topological lasers are immune to imperfections and disorder, which are mostly at microscale. The topological nanolaser with small footprint, low threshold and high energy-efficiency has yet to be explored. Scientists in China demonstrated a topological nanolaser utilizing the second-order corner state in 2D photonic crystal slab with a low threshold of about 1 μW and a high spontaneous...

Machine learning reveals vulnerabilities in 3D-printed carbon-fiber composites

Components made of glass- and carbon- fiber reinforced composites, soaring in high-performance applications, can be 3D printed. A team of researchers from NYU Tandon School of Engineering found that the printer head toolpaths are easy to reproduce -- and therefore steal -- with machine learning (ML) tools applied to the microstructures of the part obtained by a CT scan.

Nematode has potential to reduce cotton yields by 50 percent

The reniform nematode is one of the most commonly found pests of cotton, with the ability to cause severe economic damage. In order to assess exactly how much damage the reniform nematode can cause, plant pathologists at Auburn University conducted a field trial comparing a clean field to a reniform-infested field.

Neurobiology -- How much oxygen does the brain need?

The brain has a high energy demand and reacts very sensitively to oxygen deficiency. Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich neurobiologists have now succeeded for the first time in directly correlating oxygen consumption with the activity of certain nerve cells.

New guideline: Don't routinely screen for EAC in patients with chronic GERD

A new guideline from the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care, based on a rigorous systematic review of the latest evidence, found no benefit of routine screening for esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and precursor conditions (Barrett esophagus and dysplasia) in patients with chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The guideline, published in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association...

New high proton conductors with inherently oxygen deficient layers open sustainable future

Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) and the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), discover a new family of high proton-conducting materials -- 'the hexagonal perovskite-related oxides' -- and shed light on the underlying mechanisms responsible for their conductivity. Their findings lead the way to uncovering other similar materials, furthering the...

New insights into van der Waals materials found

Layered van der Waals materials are of high interest for electronic and photonic applications, according to researchers at Penn State and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, in California, who provide new insights into the interactions of layered materials with laser and electron beams.