178 articles from MONDAY 2.12.2019

US Congress commits to act on climate crisis, despite Donald Trump

Nancy Pelosi tells UN conference in Madrid that commitment is ‘iron-clad’The US will take action on greenhouse gases and engage with other countries on the climate emergency despite Donald Trump’s rejection of international cooperation, a delegation from the US Congress has told the UN climate conference in Madrid.Nancy Pelosi, the speaker of the House, struck a defiant stance on Monday,...

New strategies against bone metastases from prostate cancer

A study suggests a new approach, or, possibly two new approaches against prostate cancer bone metastases: While targeted therapies and anti-cancer immunotherapies have not been especially successful against primary prostate cancers, the study suggests that both these approaches may be effective against the bone metastases that grow from primary prostate cancers, and, in fact, the type of bone...

Reflecting on photos helps young cancer survivors regain confidence

Young cancer survivors face unique medical and psychosocial challenges that can hinder their ability to move on mentally and socially, even years after their final treatment. Lingering feelings of isolation and loss can contribute to a lack of confidence and self-efficacy, or the sense that they will be able to handle whatever arises in the future. But new research suggests survivors who retell...

Sustaining roads with grape and agricultural waste

The US spends $5 billion a year to repair damages to road infrastructure from winter snow and ice control operations and the use of traditional deicers. A team of researchers is developing a more sustainable solution using grape skins and other agricultural waste.

Why stress doesn't always cause depression

Rats susceptible to anhedonia, a core symptom of depression, possess more serotonin neurons after being exposed to chronic stress, but the effect can be reversed through amygdala activation, according to new research in JNeurosci.

Usman Khan, sentencing and the rehabilitation of serious offenders | Letters

Peter Lock, a former probation officer, and psychotherapist Tricia Scott on jail conditions that can do more harm than good to prisonersAs a retired probation officer who was involved in the delivery of training programmes for the Criminal Justice Act 2003, I would suggest that the inadequacy of sentencing in Usman Khan’s case was rooted in the manner in which imprisonment for public protection...

Tiny woodlands are more important than previously thought

Small woodlands in farmland have more benefits for humans per area, compared to large forests according to a new study. The small woodlands, sometimes even smaller than a football field, can easily go unnoticed in agricultural landscapes. Yet, these small forest remnants can store more carbon in the topsoil layer, are more suitable for hunting activities and host fewer ticks than large forests.

Sweet potato uses a single odor to warn its neighbors of insect attack

A single volatile substance can be sufficient to induce a defense response in sweet potatoes to herbivores. Researchers have identified this substance and shown that the mechanism is not only limited to the attacked plant itself but also alerts unaffected neighboring plants to defend themselves against attackers. This response is specific and not observed in every sweet potato cultivar. The...

A trick for taming terahertz transmissions

Researchers have invented a wireless communication receiver that can operate in the terahertz frequency band. By increasing the sensitivity 10,000-fold, they achieved the fastest Researchers invent a new receiver for terahertz-frequency radiation -- by implementing coherent detection, they achieve record transmission rates -- this work may lead to much faster wireless data speeds using less...

Protein defect leaves sperm chasing their tails

Researchers have characterized a protein, called VSP, that keeps sperm swimming in straight lines. Deletion of the protein caused sperm to swim in circles, significantly reducing fertilization rates. VSP also controlled the influx of calcium ions into the flagellum, which is necessary for propulsion of the sperm towards the egg. The researchers hope that their discovery will aid in the development...

Deep learning identifies molecular patterns of cancer

An artificial intelligence platform can analyze genomic data extremely quickly, picking out key patterns to classify different types of colorectal tumors and improve the drug discovery process. The deeper analysis shows some colorectal subtypes need to be reclassified.

Breathing? Thank volcanoes, tectonics and bacteria

A new study suggests Earth's first burst of oxygen was added by a spate of volcanic eruptions brought about by tectonics. In addition to explaining the appearance of significant concentrations of oxygen in the Great Oxidation Event (GOE) 2.5 billion years ago, the theory also accounts for the Lomagundi Event, a puzzling shift in the ratio of carbon isotopes in carbonate minerals that followed the...

Daughters of women with PCOS face five times greater risk

Polycystic ovary syndrome is believed to affect about one in five women of reproductive age Daughters of women with polycystic ovary syndrome, a common disorder that can cause excessive body hair, acne and fertility problems, are five times more likely than the average woman to develop the condition, a major study has found.Researchers in Sweden examined the medical histories of nearly 30,000...

How Rising Temperatures Due to Climate Change are Shortening Pregnancies

It’s bad enough that adults have made a climatological mess of the world. It’s worse that the mess is having a disproportionate impact on kids—who did nothing to create the problem, but are more susceptible to health issues caused by rising temperatures than adults are. Now, it appears, global warming is doing its damage even further down the human age spectrum. According to a...

Monkeys inform group members about threats -- following principles of cooperation

Humans are often faced with the choice of investing in the greater good or being selfish and letting others do the work. Animals that live in groups often encounter threats, and informing others could potentially save lives. Researchers show that wild sooty mangabeys, when facing dangerous vipers, do not just call out of fear or to warn their family, but will call when the information about the...

Providing safe, clean water

In many parts of the world, access to clean drinking water is far from certain. Filtration of large volumes of water, however, is slow and impractical. Scientists have now introduced a new water purification method based on magnetic nanoparticles coated with a so-called ''ionic liquid'' that simultaneously remove organic, inorganic, and microbial contaminants, as well as microplastics. The...

Potential solution to overheating mobile phones

Researchers have developed a revolutionary way to encode computational information without using electrical current. As a global first, this could lead to faster technological devices that could efficiently use energy without overheating.

New evolutionary insights into the early development of songbirds

An international team has sequenced a chromosome in zebra finches called the germline-restricted chromosome (GRC). This chromosome is only found in germline cells, the cells that hold genetic information which is passed on to the next generation. The researchers found that the GRC is tens of millions of years old and plays a key role in songbird biology, having collected genes used for embryonic...

No kale left behind: A new supple management method to limit perishable waste

Many of us know that sting of disappointment when we realize our fridge contents are seriously past their prime. Imagine that on a much bigger scale, like the nearly $54 billion in perishable retail food lost in the U.S. in 2011. That problem helped compel operations management researchers to devise a method for a timelier and less costly distribution of perishable inventory under simultaneous,...

New Compact Remote Sensor to Image Ionospheric Current's Spatial Structure from Space

This blog post originated in the 2018 Science Mission Directorate Science and Technology Report. PROJECT The Microwave Electrojet Magnetogram (MEM) KEY POINTS The low SWaP MEM sensor enables cost-effective implementation of future high-impact ionospheric current investigations on resource-limited missions, including CubeSat constellations. Artist’s depiction of a series of small...

Daylight damage to photovoltaics

A research team has investigated the ways sunlight can degrade the efficiency of newly developed organic photovoltaics over time. This work may assist in the wide commercialization of next-generation solar sheets.