246 articles from MONDAY 4.5.2020

COVID-19 has unmasked significant health disparities in the U.S.

The COVID-19 pandemic has unmasked longstanding racial and ethnic health-related disparities, according to a new article. The essay notes higher rates of COVID-19 hospitalizations, deaths or positive cases among blacks, Hispanic/LatinX and Native Americans are being reported at local and national levels.

Multiple flooding sources threaten Honolulu's infrastructure

Researchers found in the next few decades, sea level rise will likely cause large and increasing percentages of land area to be impacted simultaneously by the three flood mechanisms. Further, they found direct marine inundation represents the least extensive -- only three percent of the predicted flooding, while groundwater inundation represents the most extensive flood source.

Engineers demonstrate next-generation solar cells can take the heat, maintain efficiency

Engineers have developed a next-generation solar cell that takes advantage of the promising elctro-optical properties of perovskite materials. They've made the materials much more stable at high temperatures and demonstrated a consistent, clean way to fabricate them into solar cells. Those could be important steps toward commercial production of new, low-cost, efficient, lightweight and flexible...

Recently recovered COVID-19 patients produce varying virus-specific antibodies

Most newly discharged patients who recently recovered from COVID-19 produce virus-specific antibodies and T cells, a new study suggests, but the responses of different patients are not all the same. While the 14 patients examined in the study showed wide-ranging immune responses, results from the 6 of them that were assessed at two weeks after discharge suggest that antibodies were maintained for...

Novel magnetic field effect in diamagnetic molecules

New research demonstrates that an applied magnetic field will interact with the electronic structure of weakly magnetic, or diamagnetic, molecules to induce a magnetic-field effect that, to their knowledge, has never before been documented. With the experimental application of magnetic fields up to 25 Tesla, molecules with little intrinsic magnetism exhibit magneto-sensitive optical and...

New insight on maternal infections and neurodevelopmental disorders

The immune responses of a female mouse before pregnancy can predict how likely her offspring are to have behavioral deficits if the immune system is activated during pregnancy. The findings could help resolve what role serious infections during pregnancy play in the development of conditions such as autism and schizophrenia.

Two drugs show promise against COVID-19

Korean researchers have screened 48 FDA-approved drugs against SARS-CoV-2, and found that two, that are already FDA-approved for other illnesses, seem promising. The FDA approval for other uses would greatly reduce the time needed to gain FDA approval of use in COVID-19.

Exoplanets: How we'll search for signs of life

An interdisciplinary team of researchers has provided a framework called a 'detectability index' to help prioritize exoplanets to study and provide scientists with a tool to select the best targets for observation and maximize the chances of detecting life.

Google and Apple have laid out rules for contact tracing apps

The news: Apple and Google have announced that their coronavirus tracing technology will ban the use of location tracking. The announcement could create potential complications for some apps that planned to use the two companies’ system for notifying people of potential exposure to covid-19. The what: Contact tracing is the process of tracking and contacting people who have been potentially...

A Short History of STEVE

A citizen scientist working with NASA's Aurorasaurus project has unearthed an exciting piece of scientific history. In the writings of early 20th-century aurora explorer Carl Størmer, citizen scientist Dr. Michael Hunnekuhl noticed mentions of “feeble homogeneous arcs of great altitude” and recognized them as descriptions of the subauroral phenomenon STEVE (Strong Thermal Emission...

TACC COVID-19 twitter dataset enables social science research about pandemic

Of the myriad ways researchers are fighting the spread of the coronavirus, studying Tweets may not be the first that come to mind. But now, as in past crises, tapping into one of the world's leading real-time messaging service can help identify new pandemic hotspots, highlight new symptoms, or interpret how people and communities are responding to orders to practice social distancing.

Study reveals single-step strategy for recycling used nuclear fuel

A typical nuclear reactor uses only a small fraction of its fuel rod to produce power before the energy-generating reaction naturally terminates. What is left behind is an assortment of radioactive elements, including unused fuel, that are disposed of as nuclear waste in the United States. Although certain elements recycled from waste can be used for powering newer generations of nuclear reactors,...

Microorganisms in parched regions extract needed water from colonized rocks

Cyanobacteria living in rocks in Chile's Atacama Desert extract water from the minerals they colonize and, in doing so, change the phase of the material from gypsum to anhydrite. Researchers gained verification of this process through experiments, and the work points to possible strategies for humans to stay hydrated in harsh environments.

Rethinking tsunami defense

Careful engineering of low, plant-covered hills along shorelines can mitigate tsunami risks with less disruption of coastal life and lower costs compared to seawalls.

Single-step strategy for recycling used nuclear fuel

A typical nuclear reactor uses only a small fraction of its fuel rod to produce power before the energy-generating reaction naturally terminates. What is left behind is an assortment of radioactive elements, including unused fuel, that are disposed of as nuclear waste in the United States. Although certain elements recycled from waste can be used for powering newer generations of nuclear reactors,...

Targeting depression: Researchers ID symptom-specific targets for treatment of depression

For the first time, physician-scientists have identified two clusters of depressive symptoms that responded to two distinct neuroanatomical treatment targets in patients who underwent transcranial magnetic brain stimulation (TMS) for treatment of depression. The team's findings shed new light on the brain circuitry underlying specific symptoms of depression and may facilitate personalized TMS...