332 articles from THURSDAY 21.5.2020

DNA-directed nanofabrication of high-performance carbon nanotube field-effect transistors

Biofabricated semiconductor arrays exhibit smaller channel pitches than those created using existing lithographic methods. However, the metal ions within biolattices and the submicrometer dimensions of typical biotemplates result in both poor transport performance and a lack of large-area array uniformity. Using DNA-templated parallel carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays as model systems, we developed a...

Global threat of arsenic in groundwater

Naturally occurring arsenic in groundwater affects millions of people worldwide. We created a global prediction map of groundwater arsenic exceeding 10 micrograms per liter using a random forest machine-learning model based on 11 geospatial environmental parameters and more than 50,000 aggregated data points of measured groundwater arsenic concentration. Our global prediction map includes known...

Horizontal gene transfer of Fhb7 from fungus underlies Fusarium head blight resistance in wheat

Fusarium head blight (FHB), a fungal disease caused by Fusarium species that produce food toxins, currently devastates wheat production worldwide, yet few resistance resources have been discovered in wheat germplasm. Here, we cloned the FHB resistance gene Fhb7 by assembling the genome of Thinopyrum elongatum, a species used in wheat distant hybridization breeding. Fhb7 encodes a glutathione...

Ion transport and regulation in a synaptic vesicle glutamate transporter

Synaptic vesicles accumulate neurotransmitters, enabling the quantal release by exocytosis that underlies synaptic transmission. Specific neurotransmitter transporters are responsible for this activity and therefore are essential for brain function. The vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) concentrate the principal excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate into synaptic vesicles, driven by...

Long-term thermal sensitivity of Earths tropical forests

The sensitivity of tropical forest carbon to climate is a key uncertainty in predicting global climate change. Although short-term drying and warming are known to affect forests, it is unknown if such effects translate into long-term responses. Here, we analyze 590 permanent plots measured across the tropics to derive the equilibrium climate controls on forest carbon. Maximum temperature is the...

Observation of Floquet solitons in a topological bandgap

Topological protection is a universal phenomenon that applies to electronic, photonic, ultracold atomic, mechanical, and other systems. The vast majority of research in these systems has explored the linear domain, where interparticle interactions are negligible. We experimentally observed solitons—waves that propagate without changing shape as a result of nonlinearity—in a photonic...