316 articles from TUESDAY 2.2.2021

Remyelinating drug could improve vision in patients with multiple sclerosis

Biomedical scientists reports a drug -- an estrogen receptor ligand called indazole chloride (IndCl) -- has the potential to improve vision in patients with multiple sclerosis, or MS. The study was performed on mice induced with a model of MS and the first to investigate IndCl's effect on the pathology and function of the complete afferent visual pathway.

Sea level will rise faster than previously thought

There are two main elements to observe when assessing sea level rise. One is the loss of the ice on land and the other is that the sea will expand as it gets warmer. Researchers have constructed a new method of quantifying just how fast the sea will react to warming. Former predictions of sea level have been too conservative, so the sea will likely rise more and faster than previously believed.

Arctic shrubs add new piece to ecological puzzle

A 15-year experiment on Arctic shrubs in Greenland lends new understanding to an enduring ecological puzzle: How do species with similar needs and life histories occur together at large scales while excluding each other at small scales? Its findings also reveal trends related to carbon sequestration and climate change as the Arctic becomes both greener and browner.

Study challenges ecology's 'Field of Dreams' hypothesis

A new study challenges the 'Field of Dreams' hypothesis in restoration ecology, which predicts that restoring plant biodiversity will lead to recovery of animal biodiversity. The study of restored tallgrass prairie found the effects of management strategies (specifically controlled burns and bison reintroduction) on animal communities were six times stronger on average than the effects of plant...

Modeling the brain during pain processing

Researchers show that inhibitory interneurons, which prevent chemical messages from passing between different regions of the brain, make up 20% of the circuitry in the brain required for pain processing. The discovery represents a significant advance in researchers' understanding of how our bodies and brains respond to pain.

Researchers create novel photonic chip

Researchers have developed and demonstrated for the first time a photonic digital to analog converter without leaving the optical domain. Such novel converters can advance next-generation data processing hardware with high relevance for data centers, 6G networks, artificial intelligence and more.

A new hands-off probe uses light to explore electron behavior in a topological insulator

Topological insulators are one of the most puzzling quantum materials. Their edges are electron superhighways where electrons flow with no loss, while the bulk of the material blocks electron flow - properties that could be useful in quantum computing and information processing. Researchers used a process called high harmonic generation to separately probe electron behavior in both of those...

Deep Vision: Near-infrared imaging and machine learning can identify hidden tumors

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are tumors of the digestive tract that grow underneath the mucus layer covering our organs. Because they are deep inside the tissue, these 'submucosal tumors' are difficult to detect and diagnose, even with a biopsy. Now, researchers have developed a novel minimally invasive and accurate method using infrared imaging and machine learning to distinguish between...