330 articles from TUESDAY 27.4.2021

Digital advisory services for smallholder families in Africa and Asia

Smallholders produce two thirds of all food worldwide. Yet the majority of these approximately 500 million farmers lives in poverty. Their production is susceptible to the impacts of climate change. At the same time, they have poor access to information on agricultural practices that could help them increase production, conserve resources, and sustain their livelihoods.

Fishing in African waters

Industrial fleets from countries around the world have been increasingly fishing in African waters, but with climate change and increasing pollution threatening Africa's fish stocks, there is a growing concern of the sustainability of these marine fisheries if they continue to be exploited.

Foreign industrial fleets could threaten fishing in African waters

African waters have been contributing to the global supply of fish for years, with three of the four most productive marine ecosystems in the world near the continent. African countries' Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) contributed over 6 million metric tons of fish to the world's food supply, supporting food security and livelihood in the continent, while generating $15 billion to the African...

Do senior faculty publish as much as their younger colleagues?

An Academic Analytics Research Center (AARC) study published in the journal Scientometrics found that senior faculty (scholars who earned their terminal degree 30 or more years ago) research publication activity exceeded expectations based on age cohort population for book chapters and book publications, and senior scholars largely kept pace in terms of journal article publications. "Across all...

Study suggests how to build a better 'nanopore' biosensor

Researchers have spent more than three decades developing and studying miniature biosensors that can identify single molecules. In 5 to 10 years, when such devices may become a staple in doctors' offices, they could detect molecular markers for cancer and other diseases and assess the effectiveness of drug treatment to fight those illnesses.

Canola growth environments and genetics shape their seed microbiomes

Just as humans receive the first members of their microbiomes from their mothers, seeds may harbor some of the first microorganisms plants encounter. While these initial microbes could become influential players in the plants' microbiomes, the microbial communities that colonize seeds have not received as much attention as root, shoot, or soil microbiomes. To understand how seed microbiomes are...

The pioneering technology that is uncovering the mysteries of the 'kraken'

The legend of the "kraken" has captivated humans for millennia. Stories of deep-sea squid dragging sailors and even entire ships to their doom can be found in everything from ancient Greek mythology to modern-day movie blockbusters. It is therefore ironic that the species that inspired these stories, the giant squid Architeuthis dux, is camera-shy. In fact, filming this species in the wild has...

How to build a better 'nanopore' biosensor

Researchers have spent more than three decades developing and studying miniature biosensors that can identify single molecules. To boost the accuracy and speed of these measurements, scientists must find ways to better understand how molecules interact with these sensors. Researchers have now developed a new approach.

Incentives could turn costs of biofuel mandates into environmental benefits

Researchers examined the economic and environmental costs of the Renewable Fuels Standard mandates through 2030, including the impact on water quality in the Mississippi River basin and Gulf of Mexico. Models showed maintaining the corn ethanol mandate will lead to substantial social and environmental costs because it incentivizes expanded corn production. But the cellulosic ethanol mandate can...

Bird flu detected in Mali

Mali's agriculture ministry said on Tuesday that it had detected outbreaks of bird flu in the West African state and announced precautionary measures to "contain the disease".

The Guardian view on taste, smell and Covid: getting back our appetite | Editorial

Patients who have recovered from coronavirus yearn to be able to enjoy food again. Good cooking is a rare joy in these times“This is the first meal I’ve cooked in a year that in no way tasted or smelt revolting,” a grateful reader wrote to Ryan Riley and Kimberley Duke recently. While the praise might sound underwhelming, it was heartfelt: the British pair’s slim cookbook, Taste &...

Improved catalyst may translate to petrochemical production gains

Aromatics are major building blocks of polymers, or plastics, that turn up as everything from PET bottles for water to breathable, wrinkle-resistant polyester clothing. These petrochemicals comprise a specialized, value-added sector of the energy industry. The process for refining crude oil into useful aromatic streams for derivative use often involves the usage of a catalyst to facilitate...