131 articles from WEDNESDAY 17.11.2021

EXPLAINER: Why India has repeated air pollution problems

New Delhi struggles with pollution year-round, but the problem becomes acute during fall and winter months. On Wednesday, the concentration of tiny pollution particles was nearly 30 times above the level deemed safe over a 24-hour period by the World Health Organization.

Using virtual fluid for the description of interfacial effects in metallic materials

Liquids containing ions or polar molecules are ubiquitous in many applications needed for green technologies such as energy storage, electrochemistry or catalysis. When such liquids are brought to an interface such as an electrode—or even confined in a porous material—they exhibit unexpected behavior that goes beyond the effects already known. Recent experiments have shown that the properties...

Twin of NASA's Perseverance Mars rover begins terrain tests

On a recent day in November, the car-size rover rolled slowly forward, then stopped, perched on the threshold of a Martian landscape. But this rover, named OPTIMISM, wasn't on the Red Planet. And the landscape was a boulder-strewn mock-up of the real Mars—the Mars Yard at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California.

Genetic changes in Bronze Age southern Iberia

The third millennium BCE brought about substantial transformations that are visible in the cultures of Bronze Age Europeans. A new study documents the arrival of new genetic ancestry to southern Iberia, concomitant with the rise of the Early Bronze Age El Argar culture around 2,200 BCE.

'Volcanic winter' likely contributed to ecological catastrophe 250 million years ago

A team of scientists has identified an additional force that likely contributed to a mass extinction event 250 million years ago. Its analysis of minerals in southern China indicate that volcano eruptions produced a 'volcanic winter' that drastically lowered earth's temperatures -- a change that added to the environmental effects resulting from other phenomena at the time.

Food scientists create zinc index for human body

Zinc deficiency is prevalent around the world, and among children, these mineral shortfalls can lead to stunting, embryonic malformations and neurobehavioral abnormalities. Over several decades, science has improved understanding of zinc metabolism, but an accurate, comprehensive assessment tool for its physiological status within a human body has remained elusive. Until now.

DIY radiative cooler developed to serve as a research standard

The term "greenhouse effect" became part of public lexicon decades ago, thanks to the ongoing discourse on climate change. A natural phenomenon, the greenhouse effect describes how heat from the sun, in the form of radiation, is trapped by gases in the Earth's atmosphere. But a large amount of radiation is still lost to outer space, because these wavelengths are poorly absorbed by atmospheric...

Different kinds of marine phytoplankton respond differently to warming ocean temperatures, say researchers

Tiny marine plants called phytoplankton are the foundation of most food webs in the ocean, and their productivity drives commercial fisheries, carbon sequestration, and healthy marine ecosystems. But little is known about how they will respond to increasing ocean temperatures resulting from the changing climate. Most climate models assume they will all respond in a similar way.

Visualizing temperature transport: An unexpected technique for nanoscale characterization

As devices continue to shrink, new challenges in their measurement and design present themselves. For devices based on molecular junctions, in which single molecules are bound to metals or semiconductors, we have a variety of techniques to study and characterize their electric transport properties. In contrast, probing the thermal transport properties of such junctions at the nanoscale has proven...

Magnetic symmetry is not just like looking in a mirror

When you think about how rapidly computers filled our homes, our cars and even ourselves through watches and earpieces, it might be hard to believe that there is a massive gap between computer's processing power and the speed, capacity and reliability of our brains. But, by 2040, it is predicted that this gap will pose a critical problem for energy consumption, because by one estimate all the...

Genetic changes in Bronze Age Southern Iberia

The third millennium BCE is a highly dynamic period in the prehistory of Europe and western Asia, characterized by large-scale social and political changes. In the Iberian Peninsula, the Copper Age was in full swing in around 2500 years BCE with substantial demographic growth, attested by a large diversity of settlements and fortifications, monumental funerary structures, as well as ditched...

Exploring links between financial knowledge, age and gender in Japan

Analysis of results from a survey conducted in Japan reveals how financial literacy and financial behaviors are associated with age and gender, suggesting potential targets for policies to improve financial health. Shohei Okamoto of the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology and Kohei Komamura of Keio University in Tokyo, Japan, present these findings in the open-access journal PLOS ONE on...