112 articles from MONDAY 9.5.2022

Methylation of tRNA-derived fragments regulates gene-silencing activity in bladder cancer

Researchers describe a novel form of gene regulation that is altered in bladder cancer, leading to the boosting of a gene pathway that helps the cancer cells survive during rapid growth. The work focuses on a 22-base fragment of transfer RNA, tRF-3b, which is modified by the enzyme complex TRMT6/61A. In bladder cancer, the levels of TRMT6/61A -- a methyltransferase -- are elevated. The methylation...

Citizen science study detects vast amount of microplastics in Catalan bathing areas

The presence of microplastics in the oceans is widely documented/reported by oceanographic research, but data on the pollution in the nearshore regions are scarce due to access difficulties faced by scientific boats. Researchers from the Consolidated Research Group on Marine Geosciences of the Faculty of Earth Sciences of the UB, in collaboration with the Spanish delegation of the NGO Surfrider...

How do water mold spores swim?

Oomycetes, also known as water moulds, are pathogenic microorganisms that resemble fungi and are responsible for a group of diseases affecting several plant species. To reach and infect plants, the spores swim to their target. Physicists and biologists have now precisely measured the movement of each flagellum while a zoospore follows a linear trajectory and when it is turning.

Drugs showing promise in cancer trials reduce scarring for scleroderma

Epigenetic drugs that have shown promise in cancer trials significantly reduce scarring in the cells of patients with scleroderma, a new study shows. Results reveal that drugs that inhibit BRD4, known to play a role in cancer, also affect fibrosis in scleroderma. Researchers tested BRD4 inhibitors on the skin fibroblasts of scleroderma patients and in mouse models of skin fibrosis, finding that...

Researchers identify key factors impacting adaptive therapy

Researchers have been investigating an alternative treatment approach called adaptive therapy that focuses on maintaining disease control instead of complete tumor cell elimination. Researchers used mathematical modeling to reveal that the spatial organization of a tumor is an important factor that governs how cells compete with one another and the effectiveness of adaptive therapy.

Progress made in construction of Fred Young Submillimeter Telescope

An enormous hole 22 meters in diameter has been dug near the summit of Cerro Chajnantor in Chile's Atacama Desert, at an elevation of 18,400 feet. The hole stands ready for the cement foundation on which the Fred Young Submillimeter Telescope (FYST, pronounced "feest") will one day rest. The foundation, which was designed in Chile, began construction in the fall of 2021 and is scheduled to be...

Ice-capped volcanoes slower to erupt, study finds

The Westdahl Peak volcano in Alaska last erupted in 1992, and continued expansion hints at another eruption soon. Experts previously forecasted the next blast to occur by 2010, but the volcano -- located under about 1 kilometer of glacial ice -- has yet to erupt again. Using the Westdahl Peak volcano as inspiration, a new volcanic modeling study examined how glaciers affect the stability and...

Research team untangles more secrets of intrinsically disordered regions of proteins

Intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) of proteins, when tethered to folded domains, function either as flexible tails or as linkers between domains. Most IDRs are composed of a mixture of oppositely charged residues. Recent measurements of tethered polyampholytes have shown that arginine- and lysine-rich sequences tend to behave very differently from one another.

Powering the next generation of AI

Ubiquitous computing has triggered an avalanche of data that is beyond human processing capabilities. AI technologies have emerged as the only viable way to turn this data into information. As more computing produces more data, more computing power is needed to power AI. Next generation AI will soon look to planetary-scale computing systems to further fuel AI’s computational requirements....

Newly discovered lake may hold secret to Antarctic ice sheet's rise and fall

Scientists investigating the underside of the world's largest ice sheet in East Antarctica have discovered a city-size lake whose sediments might contain a history of the ice sheet since its earliest beginnings. That would answer questions about what Antarctica was like before it froze, how climate change has affected it over its history, and how the ice sheet might behave as the world warms.