195 articles from THURSDAY 16.6.2022

Sharks may be closer to the city than you think, new study finds

The world's coastlines are rapidly urbanizing, but how this increased human presence may impact species living in the ocean is not fully understood. In a new study led by scientists at the University of Miami (UM) Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, researchers tracked the movements of three shark species, bull, nurse and great hammerhead, in relation to the city of Miami. Given...

Solving the puzzle of 2D disorder

When players try to solve word games, they attempt to put together clues to find the solution. Sure, it helps to have a strong vocabulary, but finding the right answers to those puzzles is as much about logic and strategy as it is about being a wordsmith.

NASA completes critical testing milestone for NOAA's JPSS-2 satellite

The Joint Polar Satellite System-2 satellite, or JPSS-2, has cleared a critical testing milestone, bringing it a step closer to launch. Last week, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's polar-orbiting satellite emerged from the chamber after completing its thermal vacuum testing. This test is meant to show that the spacecraft and all of its instruments will perform successfully when...

Supercomputing helps reveal weaknesses in HIV-1 virus

Much remains to be discovered on how the HIV-1 virus infects our cells. Scientists know that it slips past the defenses of our immune system, entering white blood cells to deliver its genetic payload and hijack the cell's transcription machinery that in turn cranks out copies of viral RNA and new HIV-1 viruses. But many of the details remain hazy.

Experiment results confirm anomaly, could point to new elementary particle

New scientific results confirm an anomaly seen in previous experiments, which may point to an as-yet-unconfirmed new elementary particle, the sterile neutrino, or indicate the need for a new interpretation of an aspect of standard model physics, such as the neutrino cross section, first measured 60 years ago. Los Alamos National Laboratory is the lead American institution collaborating on the...

Disgraced Italian surgeon convicted of criminal harm to stem cell patient

A surgeon who just a decade ago was celebrated around the globe as a pioneer in stem cell transplants has been convicted of one count of “causing bodily harm,” a felony, in a Swedish court. The district court in Solna today found Paolo Macchiarini not guilty on other charges, including aggravated assault, that could have carried prison sentences of up to 4 years, relating to three...

Arkansas scientist gets 1-year sentence in case stemming from China Initiative

U.S. District Court Judge Timothy Brooks today sentenced Simon Ang to 1 year and 1 day in prison for lying to FBI about his status as an inventor. He was also fined $5500. Ang, a former engineering professor at the University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, was ordered to report to federal prison on 20 July to begin serving his sentence, after which he will be on supervised release for 1...

Understanding learning by inference

Both humans and other animals are good at learning by inference, using information we do have to figure out things we cannot observe directly. New research shows how our brains achieve this by constructing cognitive maps.

Researchers change the game when it comes to activity tracking

The creation of high-resolution extrusion printing -- think 3D printing but with ink that conducts electricity -- has enabled researchers to explore the potential of wearable human motion devices. Wearable technology -- smartwatches, heart monitors, sleep aid devices, even step counters -- have become part of everyday life. And researchers have now created even smaller, lighter and highly-accurate...

Soy sauce's salt-enhancing peptides

Soy sauce deepens the flavor of soup stocks, gives stir-fried rice its sweet-salty glaze and makes a plate of dumplings absolutely enjoyable. But what exactly makes this complex, salty, umami sauce so tasty? Now, researchers have discovered the proteins and other compounds that give soy sauce its distinctive flavors and they say that proteins and peptides help make it salty.

A glucose meter could soon say whether you have SARS-CoV-2 antibodies

Over-the-counter COVID tests can quickly show whether you are infected with SARS-CoV-2. But if you have a positive result, there's no equivalent at-home test to assess how long you're protected against reinfection. Researchers now report a simple, accurate glucose-meter-based test incorporating a novel fusion protein. The researchers say that consumers could someday use this assay to monitor their...

New global biodiversity framework falls short on inclusion of chemical pollutants, say environmental experts

Environmental scientists, ecologists, and policy experts argue in a letter published today in Science that the proposed Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework—a new international agreement to protect biodiversity—fails to account for the totality of chemical pollutants that threaten the health of ecosystems worldwide. Their recommendations arrive ahead of Post-2020 Global Biodiversity...

Off-season cattle grazing to help control fire danger from invasive cheatgrass

Cheatgrass, an invasive annual grass that has invaded Nevada rangelands, is responsible for much of the increasing wildfire danger in the Intermountain West. However, scientists at the University of Nevada, Reno have discovered that fire danger can be reduced through the application of targeted cattle grazing in the dormant growing season by attracting the cattle with stations containing protein...

Exploring soy sauce's salt-enhancing peptides

Soy sauce deepens the flavor of soup stocks, gives stir-fried rice its sweet-salty glaze and makes a plate of dumplings absolutely enjoyable. But what exactly makes this complex, salty, umami sauce so tasty? Now, researchers reporting in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry have discovered the proteins and other compounds that give soy sauce its distinctive flavors and they say that...

Murders of women worldwide remain vastly undercounted. Activists are now filling in the gaps

An unknown number of women and girls are killed every year primarily because of their gender, murders known as “femicides” or “feminicides.” Although gender-related violence is a serious problem worldwide, official government data on the issue are often inaccurate, incomplete, or nonexistent. These “missing data” have real consequences, says Helena Suárez Val, a researcher at...

Watching the death of a rare giant star

Extreme supergiant stars known as hypergiants are very rare, with only a few known to exist in the Milky Way. By tracing molecular emissions in the outflows around the red hypergiant star VY Canis Majoris, astronomers obtained the first detailed map of the star's envelope, which sheds light on the mechanisms involved in the final stages of extreme supergiant star.