143 articles from WEDNESDAY 4.1.2023

A downward spiral: When subsistence communities struggle, forests do too

Subsistence communities often rely on natural resources to meet their basic needs. 90% of people globally living in extreme poverty depend on forests for at least part of their livelihoods, according to the FAO. These groups are generally not viewed as drivers of forest loss and degradation; in fact, they are traditionally linked with low environmental and carbon footprints.

Biochemists describe structure and function of newly discovered CRISPR immune system

Utah State University biochemists Thomson Hallmark and Ryan Jackson, along with collaborators, published two seminal papers this week. Their findings describe the structure and function of a newly discovered CRISPR immune system that—unlike better-known CRISPR systems that deactivate foreign genes to protect cells—shuts down infected cells to thwart infection.

Hubble Finds That Ghost Light Among Galaxies Stretches Far Back In Time

Portal origin URL: Hubble Finds That Ghost Light Among Galaxies Stretches Far Back In TimePortal origin nid: 484852Published: Wednesday, January 4, 2023 - 11:00Featured (stick to top of list): noPortal text teaser: In giant clusters of hundreds or thousands of galaxies, innumerable stars wander among the galaxies like lost souls, emitting a ghostly haze of light.Portal...

The transition to environmental sustainability is underway, but it won't be easy

Transitions are never easy. Sometimes they are underway, and we are unaware of them. When New York City transitioned away from a manufacturing to a service economy, we lost a million people and 500,000 manufacturing jobs. Landlords lost their buildings to the city because they couldn't or wouldn't pay property tax, and some burned down their buildings to collect insurance. People predicted the end...

Monometallic endohedral azafullerene synthesized for first time

Recently, a research team led by Prof. Yang Shangfeng from the University of Sciences and Technology of China (USTC) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) synthesized La@C81N, a type of monometallic endohedral azafullerene (MEAF) for the first time, providing a new way to modulate the electronic properties of metallic endohedral fullerenes through skeletal modifications of the carbon cage....

Improving safety assessment of nanoparticles

How safe are the nanoparticles in transparent sunscreen, anti-odor socks and bacteria-resistant plasters? Although microbes are present on all organisms, the tools that estimate the safety of nanomaterials still hardly take them into account. Bregje Brinkmann explored the role of these microbes during her Ph.D. research.

Lettuce takes up toxic additives from tire wear

Wind, sewage sludge, and waste water carry tire wear particles from roads onto farmland. A new lab study shows that the pollutants contained in the particles could get into the vegetables grown there. Researchers at the Center for Microbiology and Environmental Systems Science (CMESS) at the University of Vienna have investigated whether chemicals released from tires find their way into lettuce...

Perseverant bacteria challenge antibacterial treatment

Bacterial perseverance is a new phenomenon that helps explain how bacteria adapt to survive antibiotic treatments. A group of researchers at Uppsala University have studied how individual bacteria react when exposed to different antibiotics. The result underlines the importance of adhering strictly to antibiotic prescriptions.

New method to introduce efficient water splitting for hydrogen production at low voltage

Metal oxides are a promising catalyst for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting to produce hydrogen as alternative energy. However, their effectiveness is restricted at low voltage. A research team led by scholars from City University of Hong Kong (CityU), Australia and Germany successfully mediated the poor charge carrier transport at low voltage by adding phosphorus to a metal oxide...

Methane emissions offset carbon uptake in Baltic macroalgae habitats

Bladderwrack in the Baltic Sea emits significant amounts of methane, which, to some extent, can offset the uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide by these algae. This is shown by a new study from Askö Laboratory, where the fluxes of greenhouse gases between surface waters and the atmosphere were measured continuously over several seasons.

A new way to spot methane leaks globally

A team of researchers from the Netherlands, the U.S. and Canada has found a new way to spot methane leaks around the globe. The group has published a paper describing their combined satellite approach on the arXiv preprint server.

Your style of social media use may be connected to your well-being

Are you a doom scroller or a Twitter addict? Do you pass the time by flicking endlessly through others' posts on social networking sites, or perhaps you use these platforms to share your own content? Psychologists believe our style of social media usage has important effects on our psychological well-being, but we've struggled to measure people's online behavior accurately—until now.

How tracking technology is transforming our understanding of animal behavior

Biologging is the practice of attaching devices to animals so that scientific data can be collected. For decades, basic biologgers have been used to relay physiological data including an animal's heart rate or body temperature. But now, new technologies are affording scientists a more advanced insight into the behavior of animals as they move through their natural environment undisturbed.

Sun-powered water splitter produces unprecedented levels of green energy

Call it the greenest of green energies. Scientists have long tried to use just Sun and water to generate energy, a bit like plants do when they photosynthesize. But the process—which involves using sunlight to split water molecules—has been too inefficient to be commercially viable. A new advance may change that. Previous attempts to use the Sun’s energy to split water...

Researchers inspect gamma-ray flares of the blazar 3C 279

Using NASA's Fermi spacecraft, Chinese astronomers have investigated the variability and spectral behavior of gamma-ray flares in a distant blazar known as 3C 279. Results of the study, presented in a paper published in the Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, could help researchers better understand the flaring activity of blazars.

Disabled young people have less upward social mobility than their peers —and class background makes this worse

We know very little about the inequalities experienced by disabled people in the UK today. My research finds that disabled young people lag behind in employment compared to young people who are not disabled. Not only that, but it's also likely that disabled young people will end up in jobs with worse pay and conditions than their parents: they have downward social mobility.