163 articles from TUESDAY 10.1.2023

FDA no longer needs to require animal tests before human drug trials

New medicines need not be tested in animals to receive U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval, according to legislation signed by President Joe Biden in late December 2022. The change—long sought by animal welfare organizations—could signal a major shift away from animal use after more than 80 years of drug safety regulation. “This is huge,” says Tamara...

Planetary defense and science to advance with new radar on a powerful telescope

With a transmitter less powerful than a microwave oven, a team of scientists and engineers has used the National Science Foundation's Green Bank Telescope (GBT) and Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) to make the highest-resolution radar images of the moon ever collected from the ground, paving the way for a next-generation radar system to study planets, moons, and asteroids in the solar system.

Artificial intelligence deep learning model for mapping wetlands yields 94% accuracy

Chesapeake Conservancy's data science team developed an artificial intelligence deep learning model for mapping wetlands, which resulted in 94% accuracy. Supported by EPRI, an independent, non-profit energy research and development institute; Lincoln Electric System; and the Grayce B. Kerr Fund, Inc., this method for wetland mapping could deliver important outcomes for protecting and conserving...

Scientific samples, hardware return from International Space Station for more study

A radiation protection vest, olive oil, and sutured tissues are among the scientific samples returning from the International Space Station on the 26th SpaceX commercial resupply services mission for NASA. The Dragon spacecraft, which arrived at the station Nov. 27, is scheduled to undock on January 9, with splashdown January 11 off the coast of Florida.

Molecular mechanism behind nutrient element-induced plant disease resistance discovered

Just as humans can't subsist on a diet of only French fries and brownies, plants must also consume a balanced diet to maintain optimal health and bolster their immune responses. Nutrient element uptake is necessary for plant growth, development, and reproduction. In some cases, treatment with essential elements has been shown to induce plant disease resistance, but conclusive research on the...

Rice breeding breakthrough could feed billions

An international team has succeeded in propagating a commercial hybrid rice strain as a clone through seeds with 95 percent efficiency. This could lower the cost of hybrid rice seed, making high-yielding, disease resistant rice strains available to low-income farmers worldwide. The work was published Dec. 27 in Nature Communications.

NASA Scientists Study Life Origins By Simulating a Cosmic Evolution

Portal origin URL: NASA Scientists Study Life Origins By Simulating a Cosmic EvolutionPortal origin nid: 484970Published: Tuesday, January 10, 2023 - 16:30Featured (stick to top of list): noPortal text teaser: Because amino acids are found in all living things on Earth scientists are eager to understand the origins of these molecules. After all, amino acids may have helped...

How do methanotrophs handle the toxic effects of hydrogen sulfide?

Methanotrophs—organisms that grow by consuming methane—seem to be perfect for alleviating global warming, since methane accounts for about 30% of this effect. However, drilling sites, where the natural gas is mostly composed of methane, also contains hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which inhibits the growth of methanotrophs. In a new study, researchers have discovered that the methanotroph...

Forests can help manage water amid development, climate change

In areas near Raleigh projected to see heavier future development, keeping buffers of trees or other greenery around waterways could help slow rushing streams during wet conditions, and keep them flowing during dry ones. However, North Carolina State University researchers behind a recent study warned these so-called "riparian buffers" would not be a magic bullet for managing water as development...

Pandemic-forced shift to online education can be boon for future social workers

The COVID-19 pandemic forced education, services, health care and many other aspects of everyday life online. For social work, that transition started as a challenge, but it can actually be an opportunity for educators, social workers and the people they serve. A University of Kansas professor has published a paper arguing that social work educators can adapt their teaching practices in a way that...

Rice breeding breakthrough to feed billions

An international team has succeeded in propagating a commercial hybrid rice strain as a clone through seeds with 95 percent efficiency. This could lower the cost of hybrid rice seed, making high-yielding, disease resistant rice strains available to low-income farmers worldwide.

Electrons take new shape inside unconventional metal

One of the biggest achievements of quantum physics was recasting our vision of the atom. Out was the early 1900s model of a solar system in miniature, in which electrons looped around a solid nucleus. Instead, quantum physics showed that electrons live a far more interesting life, meandering around the nucleus in clouds that look like tiny balloons. These balloons are known as atomic orbitals, and...

Rodent extinctions in Hispaniola may have been caused by humans

The island of Hispaniola once had among the highest diversity of rodents in the Caribbean, supporting 11 species that coexisted for thousands of years. Today, only one rodent species remains within the island's two countries of Haiti and the Dominican Republic, and its prospects for survival are uncertain. There are many theories as to why so many species went extinct, but it's unclear exactly...

Legionella bononiensis: A new Legionella species has been identified

They call it Legionella bononiensis: it is the 64th species of Legionella identified worldwide, the second to be isolated in Italy since the discovery of the pathogen. It was discovered in 2019 in a hotel facility by researchers from the Laboratory of Environmental Microbiology and Molecular Biology (MAb) at the University of Bologna.

NASA's TESS discovers planetary system's second Earth-size world

Using data from NASA's Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite, scientists have identified an Earth-size world, called TOI 700 e, orbiting within the habitable zone of its star—the range of distances where liquid water could occur on a planet's surface. The world is 95% Earth's size and likely rocky.

Project aims to expand language technologies

Only a fraction of the 7,000 to 8,000 languages spoken around the world benefit from modern language technologies like voice-to-text transcription, automatic captioning, instantaneous translation and voice recognition. Researchers want to expand the number of languages with automatic speech recognition tools available to them from around 200 to potentially 2,000.