148 articles from MONDAY 6.11.2023

The last turn of 'Ezekiel's Wheel' honors a fossil hunter

The mystery of Ezekiel's Wheel—the extinct sea creature, not the Biblical vision—may have taken its final turn, thanks to Yale paleontologists. In so doing, the researchers have also finally put a scientific name to the favorite fossil of a beloved amateur fossil hunter.

A comprehensive approach to tackling pollution in Houston and beyond

With its notoriously hot and humid climate and robust industrial environment, Houston is one of the most ozone-polluted cities in the United States. Now, a University of Houston research team is integrating the power of machine learning (ML) with innovative analysis techniques to pinpoint the city's air pollution sources more accurately.

How Edwin Hubble unlocked the cosmos: This Week in Astronomy with Dave Eicher

On Oct. 4, 1923, Edwin Hubble took a photographic plate of the Andromeda Nebula (as it was known then) using the 100-inch Hooker telescope at Mount Wilson. The next night, he took another plate and found that a star that seemed to belong to the nebula had changed in brightness. At first, he thought thisContinue reading "How Edwin Hubble unlocked the cosmos: This Week in Astronomy with Dave...

Food waste prevention in Europe can generate major footprint savings

New research shows that European food consumption draws unnecessarily excessively on global resources, which is why researchers are calling for political action. Many of the foods that are consumed in Europe are produced in countries outside Europe. Food loss—and waste later in the chain—occurs along the food supply chain, from the primary agricultural sector in Europe or rest of the world,...

The first assimilation of CryoSat-2 summer observations provides accurate estimates of Arctic sea ice thickness

Scientists have improved a data assimilation system for better estimating Arctic summer sea ice thickness (SIT) by assimilating satellite-based summer SIT and ice concentration data with an incremental analysis update (IAU) approach. Their study shows promising results for the improved estimations of Arctic SIT by assimilating the latest breakthrough of satellite-retrieved SIT for summer in the...

Researchers supply significant genomic insight into tar spot on corn

First reported in 2015, tar spot is an emerging disease on corn that has rapidly spread across the United States and Canada, causing tremendous yield loss estimated at $1.2 billion in 2021 alone. Tar spot gets its name from its iconic symptoms that resemble the splatter of "tar" on corn leaves, but these spots are in fact brown lesions formed by the fungal pathogen Phyllachora maydis.

The Wnt signaling pathway: The foundation of cell growth, development, and potential therapeutics

The Wnt signaling pathway, a system present in living organisms, plays a pivotal role in cell growth, differentiation, and migration. It has a long history dating back to 1982, when the first Wnt gene, essential for cellular growth, was discovered. The pathway is initiated by Wnt ligands, a set of 19 glycoproteins that transmit signals through specific receptors and proteins, leading to...

Researchers reveal true crabs' epic ancient odyssey from sea to land and back again

Crabs are unique and continuously evolving animals, often moving their lifestyles out of marine environments for other environments to do so. The most popular food species can be fully marine (snow crab) or estuarine (Maryland blue crab, Dungeness crab). Some highly terrestrial species can climb trees if they are in higher levels, while others will die if they are fully immersed in water as...

Q&A: Birds of East Africa—their extraordinary diversity and changing behavior

101 Curious Tales of East African Birds is a new book that uses academic research to tell fascinating stories about the tropical birds of east Africa, from well-known species to rare ones. It also explores changing bird behavior in the region. Its author, Colin Beale, studies shifts in the distribution of birds and other animals. We asked him four questions.

The health and economic toll of gun violence in youth

Since 2020, firearms have been the number one cause of death among children and teens in the United States, surpassing even car accidents, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. In 2022, more than 4,500 young people died from firearm injuries.

NASA's Curiosity rover clocks 4,000 days on Mars

Four thousand Martian days after setting its wheels in Gale Crater on Aug. 5, 2012, NASA's Curiosity rover remains busy conducting exciting science. The rover recently drilled its 39th sample, then dropped the pulverized rock into its belly for detailed analysis.

Paleobionics: A 450 million-year-old organism finds new life in softbotics

Researchers in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, in collaboration with paleontologists from Spain and Poland, have used fossil evidence to engineer a soft robotic replica of pleurocystitid, a marine organism that existed nearly 450 million years ago and is believed to be one of the first echinoderms capable of movement using a muscular stem.