207 articles from TUESDAY 5.12.2023

DNA recovered from polar bear snowprints could shed light on elusive species

Polar bears are tough animals to track. Scientists must brave frigid Arctic landscapes to observe them, if they can spot them at all. And if they want to collect genetic information, they often have to dart and capture the animals—a risky proposition for both researcher and bear. A new approach may lend a paw to such efforts. In two new studies, scientists report that they can...

Leading scholarly database listed hundreds of papers from ‘hijacked’ journals

Scopus, a widely used database of scientific papers operated by publishing giant Elsevier, plays an important role as an arbiter of scholarly legitimacy, with many institutions around the world expecting their researchers to publish in journals indexed on the platform. But users beware, a new study warns. As of September, the database listed 67 “hijacked” journals—legitimate...

Review of education highlights network ethnography in researching global education policy

The word "mobility" conjures up images and ideas of the movement of people, capital, and things from one place to another. The globalized world of the 21st century has ushered in an era of "new mobility" studies fronted by sociology researchers and human geography scholars. It encompasses not only the diverse movements of people, including tourists and corporate elites, and the associated...

Limitations of asteroid crater lakes as climate archives

In southern Germany just north of the Danube, there lies a large circular depression between the hilly surroundings: the Nördlinger Ries. Almost 15 million years ago, an asteroid struck this spot. Today, the impact crater is one of the most useful analogues for asteroid craters on early Mars. Studying the deposits of the former lake that formed in the crater is particularly informative. These...

Bacteria's mucus maneuvers: Study reveals how snot facilitates infection

Sniffles, snorts and blows of runny noses are the hallmarks of cold and flu season -- and that increase in mucus is exactly what bacteria use to mount a coordinated attack on the immune system, according to a new study. The team found that the thicker the mucus, the better the bacteria are able to swarm. The findings could have implications for treatments that reduce the ability of bacteria to...

Newly identified biomarkers may detect early cognitive decline via blood test

For some people, extreme stressors like psychiatric disorders or childhood neglect and abuse can lead to a range of health problems later in life, including depression, anxiety and cardiovascular disease. A new study identified genetic indicators that can predict another health problem, the decline of cognitive abilities, among people who have been affected by these extreme stressors. 

Depression, constipation, and urinary tract infections may precede MS diagnosis

In some diseases, the underlying processes can start years before a diagnosis is made. A new study finds that people who later develop multiple sclerosis (MS) are more likely to have conditions like depression, constipation and urinary tract infections five years before their MS diagnosis than people who do not develop MS. The study also found that sexual problems and bladder infections, or...

Satellite observations reveal latitudinal variability and asymmetry in local temperature responses to land cover changes

Land cover changes (LCCs) affect surface temperatures at local scale through biophysical processes. However, limited by the coarse spatial resolution of available data, past observation-based studies mainly focused on the potential effects of virtual afforestation/deforestation using the space-for-time assumption. Prof. Li and his team first generated a high-resolution temperature dataset and then...

Forecasting forest health using models to predict tree canopy height

Tree height is an important indicator of a forest's maturity and overall health. Forest restoration projects rely on tree height as a predictor and measurement of success, but forecasting a forest's future tree height based on observations alone is almost impossible. Too many factors contribute to the growth and health of trees.

The silver bullet that wasn't: Glyphosate's declining weed control over 25 years

It has been a quarter century since corn and soybeans were engineered to withstand the withering mists of the herbicide glyphosate. Initially heralded as a "silver bullet" for weed control, the modified crops and their herbicide companion were quickly and widely adopted across corn and soybean-growing regions of North America. In the following years, though, weeds targeted for eradication quietly...

Picking up good vibrations: The surprising physics of the didgeridoo

Australia's most iconic sound is almost certainly the didgeridoo. The long wooden tube-shaped instrument is famous for its unique droning music and has played a significant role in Australian Aboriginal culture for thousands of years. Despite the instrument's simple design, the playing technique can be highly complex.