217 articles from WEDNESDAY 21.2.2024

Solar-driven green synthesis of epoxides

Research published in the journal Science China Chemistry is expected to serve as comprehensive background knowledge and to provide researchers with insight into the recent developments of solar-driven green synthesis of epoxides.

VPNVax: Crafting enhanced viral structure in vaccines through polymer restructuring

Generally speaking, the higher the degree of information restoration of a vaccine to a virus, the greater its potential efficacy. The virus itself is the most authentic vaccine, such as the varicella-zoster virus, which provides lifelong immunity after a single infection. However, viruses also evolve mechanisms to evade immune surveillance during their long evolutionary history, such as evading...

Mapping the future of rural revitalization: Study sheds light on China's rural dynamics

Globally, rural areas face challenges such as population decline, job shortages, and deepening urban-rural divides, exacerbated by rapid urbanization and industrialization. In China, these issues threaten rural sustainability, making the study of rural development patterns, especially the interaction between population dynamics, land use, and industrial activities, critical for devising effective...

Study: Replacing plastics with biodegradable alternatives would lead to significant carbon emissions reduction

Plastic pollution and its impact on the environment have become critical global issues in recent years. In response, the research teams have conducted a study to evaluate the carbon emissions associated with both traditional plastic products and biodegradable plastic products (BPPs). Their findings demonstrate a substantial reduction in carbon emissions by replacing traditional plastics with...

New approach to carbon-14 dating corrects the age of a prehistoric burial site

How old are these bones? This standard question in archaeology can be answered quite precisely in many cases with the help of the carbon isotope 14C. But there are exceptions. Certain living habits, such as that of prehistoric hunter-gatherer-fisher communities, can distort 14C dating, because carbon in aquatic ecosystems typically contains less 14C than carbon from terrestrial plants and...

Researchers develop molecules for a new class of antibiotics that can overcome drug resistant bacteria

About a decade ago, researchers in UC Santa Barbara chemistry professor Guillermo Bazan's lab began to observe a recurring challenge in their research: Some of the compounds they were developing to harness energy from bacteria were instead killing the microbes. Not good if the objective of the project was to harness the metabolism of living bacteria to produce electricity.

Utah's Bonneville Salt Flats has long been in flux, new research finds

It has been long assumed that Utah's Bonneville Salt Flats was formed as its ancient namesake lake dried up 13,000 years ago. But new research from the University of Utah has gutted that narrative, determining these crusts did not form until several thousand years after Lake Bonneville disappeared, which could have important implications for managing this feature that has been shrinking for...

Study explores perceptions of US Veterans Treatment Courts

A new study by researchers at the University of Massachusetts (UMass) Lowell, San Diego State University, and Penn State Harrisburg has examined perceptions of team members who work with a U.S. program called Veterans Treatment Courts (VTCs) regarding the viability and longevity of the program. The study identified team members' expectations and hopes for the future, including the importance of...

New tool helps users track fruit-plant readiness for growing season

Purdue University's Midwestern Regional Climate Center (MRCC) has launched its new interactive chilling hours tool. Growers now can more closely monitor accumulated chilling hours, an important factor that tracks how long fruit plants have been exposed to an ideal range of cool temperatures throughout the dormant season.

High resolution techniques reveal clues in 3.5 billion-year-old biomass

To learn about the first organisms on our planet, researchers have to analyze the rocks of the early Earth. These can only be found in a few places on the surface of Earth. The Pilbara Craton in Western Australia is one of these rare sites; there are rocks there that are around 3.5 billion years old containing traces of the microorganisms that lived at that time.

Physicists discover a quantum state with a new type of emergent particles: Six-flux composite fermions

If the fractional quantum Hall regime were a series of highways, these highways would have either two or four lanes. The flow of the two-flux or four-flux composite fermions, like automobiles in this two- to four-flux composite fermion traffic scenario, naturally explains the more than 90 fractional quantum Hall states that form in a large variety of host materials. Physicists at Purdue University...

Research team develops nanoscale device for brain chemistry analysis

Longstanding challenges in biomedical research such as monitoring brain chemistry and tracking the spread of drugs through the body require much smaller and more precise sensors. A new nanoscale sensor that can monitor areas 1,000 times smaller than current technology and can track subtle changes in the chemical content of biological tissue with sub-second resolution, greatly outperforming...

How bats survive Norwegian winter nights

You have probably seen bats flying at dusk. They suddenly appear on summer evenings, when other flying creatures have settled down for the night. However, they are not a common sight in Norway, because there aren't that many of them. In addition, bats are not so easy to spot, seeing as they only emerge from their hiding places once darkness descends.

A new tool can help protect California and Nevada communities from floods while preserving their water supply

At the dawn of the new year in 1997, the Truckee River transformed. The winter season had thus far been great for snow, but when a subtropical storm from near the Hawaiian Islands rolled in, it carried with it unseasonably warm rain. The warm rainfall combined with snowmelt to swell the rivers, with the Truckee burying much of downtown Reno under water. Two people were killed amidst the nearly $1...