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16,446 articles from ScienceNOW

A mathematical model reveals the influence of population heterogeneity on herd immunity to SARS-CoV-2

Despite various levels of preventive measures, in 2020, many countries have suffered severely from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus. Using a model, we show that population heterogeneity can affect disease-induced immunity considerably because the proportion of infected individuals in groups with the...

A molecular mediator for reductive concerted proton-electron transfers via electrocatalysis

Electrocatalytic approaches to the activation of unsaturated substrates via reductive concerted proton-electron transfer (CPET) must overcome competing, often kinetically dominant hydrogen evolution. We introduce the design of a molecular mediator for electrochemically triggered reductive CPET through the synthetic integration of a Brønsted acid and a redox mediator. Cathodic reduction at...

Active restoration accelerates the carbon recovery of human-modified tropical forests

More than half of all tropical forests are degraded by human impacts, leaving them threatened with conversion to agricultural plantations and risking substantial biodiversity and carbon losses. Restoration could accelerate recovery of aboveground carbon density (ACD), but adoption of restoration is constrained by cost and uncertainties over effectiveness. We report a long-term comparison of ACD...

BAF restricts cGAS on nuclear DNA to prevent innate immune activation

The appearance of DNA in the cytosol is perceived as a danger signal that stimulates potent immune responses through cyclic guanosine monophosphate–adenosine monophosphate synthase (cGAS). How cells regulate the activity of cGAS toward self-DNA and guard against potentially damaging autoinflammatory responses is a fundamental biological question. Here, we identify barrier-to-autointegration...