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16,446 articles from ScienceNOW

A mathematical model reveals the influence of population heterogeneity on herd immunity to SARS-CoV-2

Despite various levels of preventive measures, in 2020, many countries have suffered severely from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus. Using a model, we show that population heterogeneity can affect disease-induced immunity considerably because the proportion of infected individuals in groups with the...

A molecular mediator for reductive concerted proton-electron transfers via electrocatalysis

Electrocatalytic approaches to the activation of unsaturated substrates via reductive concerted proton-electron transfer (CPET) must overcome competing, often kinetically dominant hydrogen evolution. We introduce the design of a molecular mediator for electrochemically triggered reductive CPET through the synthetic integration of a Brønsted acid and a redox mediator. Cathodic reduction at...

Active restoration accelerates the carbon recovery of human-modified tropical forests

More than half of all tropical forests are degraded by human impacts, leaving them threatened with conversion to agricultural plantations and risking substantial biodiversity and carbon losses. Restoration could accelerate recovery of aboveground carbon density (ACD), but adoption of restoration is constrained by cost and uncertainties over effectiveness. We report a long-term comparison of ACD...

BAF restricts cGAS on nuclear DNA to prevent innate immune activation

The appearance of DNA in the cytosol is perceived as a danger signal that stimulates potent immune responses through cyclic guanosine monophosphate–adenosine monophosphate synthase (cGAS). How cells regulate the activity of cGAS toward self-DNA and guard against potentially damaging autoinflammatory responses is a fundamental biological question. Here, we identify barrier-to-autointegration...

Binding mechanisms of therapeutic antibodies to human CD20

Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting human antigen CD20 (cluster of differentiation 20) constitute important immunotherapies for the treatment of B cell malignancies and autoimmune diseases. Type I and II therapeutic mAbs differ in B cell binding properties and cytotoxic effects, reflecting differential interaction mechanisms with CD20. Here we present 3.7- to 4.7-angstrom cryo–electron...

Building social cohesion between Christians and Muslims through soccer in post-ISIS Iraq

Can intergroup contact build social cohesion after war? I randomly assigned Iraqi Christians displaced by the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) to an all-Christian soccer team or to a team mixed with Muslims. The intervention improved behaviors toward Muslim peers: Christians with Muslim teammates were more likely to vote for a Muslim (not on their team) to receive a sportsmanship award,...

Divergent synthesis of complex diterpenes through a hybrid oxidative approach

Polycyclic diterpenes exhibit many important biological activities, but de novo synthetic access to these molecules is highly challenging because of their structural complexity. Semisynthetic access has also been limited by the lack of chemical tools for scaffold modifications. We report a chemoenzymatic platform to access highly oxidized diterpenes by a hybrid oxidative approach that...

DNA vaccine protection against SARS-CoV-2 in rhesus macaques

The global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has made the development of a vaccine a top biomedical priority. In this study, we developed a series of DNA vaccine candidates expressing different forms of the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein and evaluated them in 35 rhesus macaques. Vaccinated animals developed humoral and...

Fire and grass-bedding construction 200 thousand years ago at Border Cave, South Africa

Early plant use is seldom described in the archaeological record because of poor preservation. We report the discovery of grass bedding used to create comfortable areas for sleeping and working by people who lived in Border Cave at least 200,000 years ago. Sheaves of grass belonging to the broad-leafed Panicoideae subfamily were placed near the back of the cave on ash layers that were often...

Huntingtons disease alters human neurodevelopment

Although Huntington’s disease is a late-manifesting neurodegenerative disorder, both mouse studies and neuroimaging studies of presymptomatic mutation carriers suggest that Huntington’s disease might affect neurodevelopment. To determine whether this is actually the case, we examined tissue from human fetuses (13 weeks gestation) that carried the Huntington’s disease mutation....