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18,910 articles from ScienceNOW

Assessing Chinas efforts to pursue the 1.5{degrees}C warming limit

Given the increasing interest in keeping global warming below 1.5°C, a key question is what this would mean for China’s emission pathway, energy restructuring, and decarbonization. By conducting a multimodel study, we find that the 1.5°C-consistent goal would require China to reduce its carbon emissions and energy consumption by more than 90 and 39%, respectively, compared with the...

Barcoded viral tracing of single-cell interactions in central nervous system inflammation

Cell-cell interactions control the physiology and pathology of the central nervous system (CNS). To study astrocyte cell interactions in vivo, we developed rabies barcode interaction detection followed by sequencing (RABID-seq), which combines barcoded viral tracing and single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq). Using RABID-seq, we identified axon guidance molecules as candidate mediators of...

Broadband directional control of thermal emission

Controlling the directionality of emitted far-field thermal radiation is a fundamental challenge. Photonic strategies enable angular selectivity of thermal emission over narrow bandwidths, but thermal radiation is a broadband phenomenon. The ability to constrain emitted thermal radiation to fixed narrow angular ranges over broad bandwidths is an important, but lacking, capability. We introduce...

C(sp3)-H methylation enabled by peroxide photosensitization and Ni-mediated radical coupling

The "magic methyl" effect describes the change in potency, selectivity, and/or metabolic stability of a drug candidate associated with addition of a single methyl group. We report a synthetic method that enables direct methylation of C(sp3)–H bonds in diverse drug-like molecules and pharmaceutical building blocks. Visible light–initiated triplet energy transfer promotes homolysis of...

Cholinergic neurons constitutively engage the ISR for dopamine modulation and skill learning in mice

The integrated stress response (ISR) maintains proteostasis by modulating protein synthesis and is important in synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. We developed a reporter, SPOTlight, for brainwide imaging of ISR state with cellular resolution. Unexpectedly, we found a class of neurons in mouse brain, striatal cholinergic interneurons (CINs), in which the ISR was activated at steady state....

Conserved genetic signatures parcellate cardinal spinal neuron classes into local and projection subsets

Motor and sensory functions of the spinal cord are mediated by populations of cardinal neurons arising from separate progenitor lineages. However, each cardinal class is composed of multiple neuronal types with distinct molecular, anatomical, and physiological features, and there is not a unifying logic that systematically accounts for this diversity. We reasoned that the expansion of new neuronal...

Epidemiological and evolutionary considerations of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine dosing regimes

Given vaccine dose shortages and logistical challenges, various deployment strategies are being proposed to increase population immunity levels to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Two critical issues arise: How timing of delivery of the second dose will affect infection dynamics and how it will affect prospects for the evolution of viral immune escape via a buildup of...

Fluctuations shape plants through proprioception

Plants constantly experience fluctuating internal and external mechanical cues, ranging from nanoscale deformation of wall components, cell growth variability, nutating stems, and fluttering leaves to stem flexion under tree weight and wind drag. Developing plants use such fluctuations to monitor and channel their own shape and growth through a form of proprioception. Fluctuations in mechanical...

Global groundwater wells at risk of running dry

Groundwater wells supply water to billions of people, but they can run dry when water tables decline. Here, we analyzed construction records for ~39 million globally distributed wells. We show that 6 to 20% of wells are no more than 5 meters deeper than the water table, implying that millions of wells are at risk of running dry if groundwater levels decline by only a few meters. Further, newer...

Higher-dimensional supersymmetric microlaser arrays

The nonlinear scaling of complexity with the increased number of components in integrated photonics is a major obstacle impeding large-scale, phase-locked laser arrays. Here, we develop a higher-dimensional supersymmetry formalism for precise mode control and nonlinear power scaling. Our supersymmetric microlaser arrays feature phase-locked coherence and synchronization of all of the evanescently...

Josephson junction infrared single-photon detector

Josephson junctions are superconducting devices used as high-sensitivity magnetometers and voltage amplifiers as well as the basis of high-performance cryogenic computers and superconducting quantum computers. Although device performance can be degraded by the generation of quasiparticles formed from broken Cooper pairs, this phenomenon also opens opportunities to sensitively detect...

Preventing Engrailed-1 activation in fibroblasts yields wound regeneration without scarring

Skin scarring, the end result of adult wound healing, is detrimental to tissue form and function. Engrailed-1 lineage–positive fibroblasts (EPFs) are known to function in scarring, but Engrailed-1 lineage–negative fibroblasts (ENFs) remain poorly characterized. Using cell transplantation and transgenic mouse models, we identified a dermal ENF subpopulation that gives rise to...

Replication timing maintains the global epigenetic state in human cells

The temporal order of DNA replication [replication timing (RT)] is correlated with chromatin modifications and three-dimensional genome architecture; however, causal links have not been established, largely because of an inability to manipulate the global RT program. We show that loss of RIF1 causes near-complete elimination of the RT program by increasing heterogeneity between individual cells....