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220,714 articles from PhysOrg

Distinct cell-to-cell communication processes controlled differently

Cells talk to each other to coordinate nutrition, waste removal, energy use, and, in some cases, disease progression. The cells that line the surfaces of organs or specific tissues, called epithelial cells, appear to speak two different languages—one for either side of the cell, according to a new study by researchers based in Japan.

The first hydroxide conductivity in anion conducting polymer thin films

As decarbonization progresses rapidly in the world, fuel cells offer potentially higher electrical efficiency than conventional power-generating systems. Anion exchange membrane fuel cells offer advantages of using non-precious metal catalysts than proton exchange membrane fuel cells. One of the challenges of this next-generation fuel cell is to clarify the hydroxide ion conductivity in the ion...

Understanding the thermodynamic cost of timekeeping

Clocks are essential building blocks of modern technology, from computers to GPS receivers. They are also essentially engines, irreversibly consuming resources in order to generate accurate ticks. But what resources have to be expended to achieve a desired accuracy? In our latest study, published in Physical Review X, we answer this question by measuring, for the first time, the entropy generated...

Artificial intelligence makes great microscopes better than ever

To observe the swift neuronal signals in a fish brain, scientists have started to use a technique called light-field microscopy, which makes it possible to image such fast biological processes in 3D. But the images are often lacking in quality, and it takes hours or days for massive amounts of data to be converted into 3D volumes and movies.

Decapitated flatworms still sense light

A team of researchers from the Institute for Stem Cell Science and Regenerative Medicine, the Technology & Research Academy University and the University of Hyderabad, all in India, has found that flatworms are able to sense light exposure even after decapitation. The researchers have published their findings in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Why imported veg is still more sustainable than local meat

A former colleague who was a researcher and promoter of local food systems once argued that local meat markets connect children with reality. "If young people do not have a direct experience with food," he told me, "they might think it originates on supermarket shelves. Local butcheries improve food literacy and reduce the disconnect between consumers and their choices." Many would dispute this...

A barred galaxy's massive molecular inflow

Large amounts of gas are sometimes funneled to a galaxy's nuclear regions, with profound consequences. The gas triggers starburst activity and can also feed the supermassive black hole, converting it into an active galactic nucleus (AGN); indeed the supermassive black holes in AGN are thought to gain most of their mass in these accretion events. Eventually, outward pressure from supernovae,...

Chiral Faraday effect breakthrough, thanks to helices made of nickel

Physicists at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have for the first time been able to prove a long-predicted but as yet unconfirmed fundamental effect. In Faraday chiral anisotropy, the propagation characteristics of light waves are changed simultaneously by the natural and magnetic-field induced material properties of the medium through which the light travels. The...

A deeper understanding of how cells move and stick together

Observing how cells stick to surfaces and their motility is vitally important in the study of tissue maintenance, wound healing and even understanding how cancers progress. A new paper published in The European Physical Journal Plus, by Raj Kumar Sadhu, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel, takes a step towards a deeper understanding of these processes.

Emissions from human activity modify biogenic secondary organic aerosol formation

Despite their extremely small size, submicron atmospheric aerosols are critical pollutants with climate change, air quality, and human health implications. Of these particles, secondary organic aerosols (SOA) form when volatile organic compounds (VOCs) oxidize to lower volatility products that bond with and increase aerosol particle size, or in some cases, they may simply exist by themselves. SOA...

Self-generating yarn made from graphene oxide strands

A team of researchers from Zhejiang University, Xi'an Jiaotong University and Monash University has developed a way to bind multiple strands of graphene oxide into a thick cable. In their paper published in the journal Science, the group describes their process and possible uses for it. Rodolfo Cruz-Silva and Ana Laura Elías with Shinshu University and Binghamton University have published a...

Great reed warblers fly as high as 6,000 meters over Sahara and Mediterranean

A team of researchers from Lund University, the University of Copenhagen and the Nature Research Centre in Lithuania has found that some great reed warblers climb as high as 6,000 meters when they fly over the Sahara Desert and the Mediterranean Sea. In their paper published in the journal Science, the group describes monitoring migrating great reed warblers by affixing tiny data loggers to their...

Animals laugh too, analysis of vocalization data suggests

Human laughter is common, but it's a somewhat mysterious part of our evolution. It's clear to evolutionary scholars that we laugh as a part of play, signaling our cooperation or friendliness. But how did laughter evolve? And are humans the only ones who do it?

African swine fever virus vaccine candidate now produced in a cell line

The U.S. Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service (ARS) today announced that an African Swine Fever Virus vaccine candidate has been adapted to grow in a cell line, which means that those involved in vaccine production will no longer have to rely on live pigs and their fresh cells for vaccine production.