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160,892 articles from EurekAlert

Jurassic fossils from northeastern China reveal morphological stasis in the catkin-yew

Dong and colleagues studied well-preserved plant fossils from the Middle-Late Jurassic Daohugou Bed in eastern Inner Mongolia, northeastern China. These fossils closely resemble the extant catkin-yews Amentotaxus. They provide unequivocal evidence that the catkin-yews have undergone little morphological change over at least ~160 million years. Like ginkgo, the catkin-yews are living fossils that...


FRIDAY 10. JULY 2020


Age-related features of facial anatomy for increase safety during plastic surgery

Researchers from the Center for Diagnostics and Telemedicine together with colleagues from Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science, University of Munich and Sechenov University used computed tomography to analyze the individual anatomy of the nasolabial triangle. They identified possible options for the distribution of blood vessels on three-dimensional course.

Basel study: Why lopinavir and hydroxychloroquine do not work on COVID-19

Lopinavir is a drug against HIV, hydroxychloroquine is used to treat malaria and rheumatism. Until recently, both drugs were regarded as potential agents in the fight against the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. A research group from the University of Basel and the University Hospital has now discovered that the concentration of the two drugs in the lungs of Covid-19 patients is not sufficient to fight the...

Collective behavior research reveals secrets of successful football teams

Collective behaviour researchers have applied a new tool for analysing the movement of football players that goes beyond looking at individual athletes to capturing how the team operates as a whole. The tool, which comes from statistical physics but has never been used for sports analysis, finds clear differences in collective dynamics between winning and losing teams and can even predict the...

Construction: How to turn 36 seconds into USD 5.4 billion

A team of researchers from Aarhus University have, for the first time ever, linked 40 years of productivity data from the construction industry with the actual work done. The results show that productivity in the construction industry has been declining since the 1970s. The results also explain the decline and how to achieve far more efficient construction in North America and Europe. The study...

Couldn't socially distance? Blame your working memory

Whether you decided to engage in social distancing in the early stages of COVID-19 depended on how much information your working memory could hold. Researchers found individuals with higher working memory capacity have an increased awareness of benefits over costs of social distancing and show more compliance with recommended social distancing guidelines during the early stage of the COVID-19...

COVID-19 can be transmitted in the womb, reports pediatric infectious disease journal

A baby girl in Texas -- born prematurely to a mother with COVID-19 -- is the strongest evidence to date that intrauterine (in the womb) transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can occur, reports The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, the official journal of The European Society for Paediatric Infectious Diseases. The journal is published in the Lippincott...

Day in, day out: Targeting the daily magnesium "rhythm" can optimize crop yield

Many processes of photosynthesis, including the intake of magnesium, follow a pattern of variation over 24 hours. In a new study, scientists from Okayama University, Japan and Fujian A & F University, China, tested the effect of this variation on the efficiency of photosynthesis in rice plants. Their findings suggest potential candidates for modification for increasing the yield of rice crops,...

Discovery of a novel drug candidate to develop effective treatments for brain disorders

Researchers at IIT-Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia discovered a novel chemical compound, which has the potential to became a new drug for the treatment of core symptoms of brain disorders like Down syndrome and autism. Results are obtained in preclinical models where the new compound ameliorated difficulties in cognitive tasks, social interactions and repetitive behaviors. Researchers aim to...

Experts, advocates publish guidance for research on HIV, co-infections in pregnancy

Changing practices in the HIV/co-infections research community so that women, providers, and policy makers can make evidence-informed decisions around the use of medications during pregnancy is the goal of the new report, Ending the Evidence Gap for Pregnant Women around HIV and Co-infections: A Call to Action, issued today by the Pregnancy and HIV/AIDS: Seeking Equitable Study (PHASES) Working...

Extraordinary regeneration of neurons in zebrafish

Biologists from the University of Bayreuth have discovered a uniquely rapid form of regeneration in injured neurons and their function in the central nervous system of zebrafish. They studies the Mauthner cells, which are solely responsible for the escape behaviour of the fish, and previously regarded as incapable of regeneration. However, their ability to regenerate crucially depends on the...

Fat cell hormone boosts potential of stem cell therapy

Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy has shown promising results in the treatment of conditions ranging from liver cirrhosis to retinal damage, but results can be variable. Using a mouse heart failure model, researchers led by Osaka University found that levels of a fat cell-derived hormone called adiponectin in the host significantly affect the efficacy of MSC therapy. Administration of a drug...

Gender bias in evaluating surgical residency faculty members may be decreasing

In the male-dominated field of surgery, female faculty of training programs tend to receive lower scores than male faculty on their teaching evaluations, which are important for career advancement, past research has found. A new study suggests progress in this apparent gender bias: Among 21 U.S. general surgery residency programs, female faculty scored slightly better overall than male faculty did...

Health disparities published in new volume

Leading health disparities experts hope health institutions will take advantage of a new cancer health equity research volume recently released that curates the latest developments in how researchers can best address health disparities so all patients receive good quality care.

How Venus flytraps snap

Venus flytraps catch spiders and insects by snapping their trap leaves. This mechanism is activated when unsuspecting prey touch highly sensitive trigger hairs twice within 30 seconds. A study led by researchers at the University of Zurich has now shown that a single slow touch also triggers trap closure - probably to catch slow-moving larvae and snails.

Invention: "Nanocage" tool untangles (molecular) spaghetti

A team of scientists at the University of Vermont have invented a new tool--they call it a "nanocage"--that can catch and straighten out molecule-sized tangles of polymers --whether made of protein or plastic. This tool--that works a bit like pulling a wad of thread through a needle hole--opens a new way to create custom materials that have never been made before.

Is gender equality achievable in the Russian family?

Distribution of rights and obligations in the family, opportunities and responsibilities in performing the main family functions is one of the most controversial, but at the same time one of the most important issues in the modern context.Scientists from the Department of General Sociology and Social Work of the Faculty of Social Sciences at Lobachevsky University have been engaged in research...

Is what I see, what I imagine? Study finds neural overlap between vision and imagination

In Current Biology, Medical University of South Carolina researchers report the results of a study using artificial intelligence and human brain studies to compare brain areas involved in mental imagery and vision. Their findings suggest that mental imagery and vision are similar, but that low-level visual areas are activated in a less precise manner with mental imagery. This suggests that the...

Largest study of prostate cancer genomics in Black Americans ids targets for therapies

Black men in the United States are known to suffer disproportionately from prostate cancer, but few studies have investigated whether genetic differences in prostate tumors could have anything to do with these health disparities. Now, in the largest study of its kind to date, researchers from Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM), UC San Francisco (UCSF), and Northwestern University have...

Like humans, beluga whales form social networks beyond family ties

A groundbreaking study is the first to analyze the relationship between group behaviors, group type, group dynamics, and kinship of beluga whales in 10 locations across the Arctic. Results show that not only do beluga whales regularly interact with close kin, including close maternal kin, they also frequently associate with more distantly related and unrelated individuals. Findings will improve...

Liquid metal synthesis for better piezoelectrics: Atomically-thin tin-monosulfide

An RMIT-UNSW collaboration applies liquid-metal synthesis to piezoelectrics, advancing future flexible, wearable electronics, and biosensors drawing their power from the body's movements.Piezoelectric materials such as atomically-thin tin-monosulfide (SnS) convert mechanical forces or movement into electrical energy. Along with their inherent flexibility, this makes them candidates for flexible...

Microscopy technique reveals nanoscale detail of coatings as they dry

Thin film coatings do more than add color to walls. For example, they can be used as pharmaceutical devices. How these coatings dry can change their properties, which is especially important for films used in drug delivery. Lehigh University engineering researchers studying the in situ drying behavior of thin film coatings are visualizing particle interactions with groundbreaking precision. Their...

Mom and baby share 'good bacteria' through breast milk

A new study by researchers at the University of British Columbia and the University of Manitoba has found that bacteria are shared and possibly transferred from a mother's milk to her infant's gut, and that breastfeeding directly at the breast best supports this process.

More than meets the eye

New findings reframe the traditional view of face blindness as a disorder arising strictly from deficits in visual perception of facial features. Findings suggest prosopagnosia may be a more complex disorder rooted in multiple deficits. Findings can help inform the design of tools to improve face recognition in those with the condition.

NASA tracks tropical storm fay's development and strongest side

NASA used satellite data to create an animation of Fay's development and progression over the past few days, showing how the storm organized into a tropical storm. Additionally, NASA's Aqua satellite used infrared light to find the location of the strongest storms in Tropical Storm Fay occurring in the northeastern quadrant of the storm, mostly over the Atlantic Ocean.

New biomarker for dementia diagnosis

Medical researchers in the UK and Australia have identified a new marker which could support the search for novel preventative and therapeutic treatments for dementia. In an innovative new study, coordinated by Flinders University and University of Aberdeen, the researchers investigated the role of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), a blood marker associated with atherosclerosis and...

Optical shaping of polarization anisotropy in a laterally-coupled-quantum-dot dimer

Coupled-quantum-dot (CQD) structures are considered to be an important building block in the development of scalable quantum devices. We found that emission of a laterally-coupled QD structure is strongly polarized along the coupled direction and its polarization anisotropy can be shaped by changing the orientation of the excitation polarization. Surprisingly, both excitons and local biexcitons...

Orbital engineering of quantum confinement in high-Al-content AlGaN quantum well

Recently, professor Kang's group focus on the limitation of quantum confine band offset model, the hole states delocalization in high-Al-content AlGaN quantum well are understood in terms of orbital intercoupling. The potential barriers of different orbitals were investigated by first principle simulation, and a new mechanism of quantum confinement was presented. Based on the orbital...