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160,892 articles from EurekAlert

ESF's workshop restores good name of sugar

Sugars were once credited with magical healing powers but are now seen like salt as an evil necessary in small doses but the cause of numerous diseases such as diabetes if taken in excess. Yet latest research suggests this view ignores the vital role played by more complex sugars in many biological structures, and the great therapeutic potential they have.

Evidence found for genes that affect risk of developing Alzheimer's disease

Through one of the largest studies yet of Alzheimer's disease patients and their brothers, sisters, and children, researchers at Mayo Clinic Jacksonville have found strong evidence that genes other than the well-known susceptibility risk factor APOE4 influence who is at risk for developing the neurodegenerative disease later in life.

Genetic diversity of European Americans and disease gene mapping

In a recent study, published in the open-access journal PLoS Genetics, an international team of researchers provide the first genetic dissection of the population structure of European Americans, focusing on identifying the contributions from different genetic ancestries that are important for disease gene mapping.

Genome scan shows Polynesians have little genetic relationship to Melanesians

The origins and current genetic relationships of Pacific Islanders have generated interest and controversy for many decades. Now, a new comprehensive genetic study of almost 1,000 individuals has revealed that Polynesians and Micronesians have almost no genetic relation to Melanesians, and that groups that live in the islands of Melanesia are remarkably diverse.

JCI table of contents: Jan. 17, 2008

This release contains summaries, links to PDFs, and contact information for the following newsworthy papers to be published online, Jan. 17, 2008, in the JCI: Engineered mice provide insight into Alzheimer disease; Scratching an itch: neutralizing IL-22 prevents psoriasis in mice; Seeing is believing: visualizing inflammation in fat tissue; and Factor I complements the kidney.

Jefferson scientists uncover role of cancer stem cell marker: controlling gene expression

Scientists at Jefferson's Kimmel Cancer Center in Philadelphia have made an extraordinary advance in the understanding of the function of a gene previously shown to be part of an 11-gene "signature" that can predict which tumors will be aggressive and likely to spread. The gene, USP22, encodes an enzyme that appears to be crucial for controlling large scale changes in gene expression, one of the...

Just hours apart, 2 brothers undergo robotic prostate cancer surgery

Two brothers from Savannah, Georgia diagnosed with prostate cancer flew to The Mount Sinai Medical Center in New York to have lifesaving surgery on the same day this week. Dr. David B. Samadi, MD, Chief of Robotics and Minimally Invasive Surgery in the Department of Urology at Mount Sinai successfully performed the robotic prostate cancer surgeries on the siblings one after another on Monday, Jan....

Materials' crystal properties illuminated by mathematical 'lighthouse'

A deeper fundamental understanding of complex materials may now be possible, thanks to a pair of Princeton scientists who have uncovered a new insight into how crystals form. The researchers' findings reveal a previously unknown mathematical relationship between the different arrangements that interacting particles can take while freezing. The discovery could give scientists insight into the...

New function for colon cancer gene found

Dartmouth Medical School geneticists have discovered a striking turnabout role for a gatekeeper known to put on the brakes for colon cancer. Flaws in a gene called adenomatous polyposis coli, which normally prevents excessive cell growth, are thought to trigger development of most colorectal cancers. But in an about face, the tumor suppressor gene also has a second task, the researchers found, as...

New gene test for prostate cancer at hand

Men with susceptibility for prostate cancer will soon be identifiable through a simple DNA test. So hope scientists at the Swedish medical university Karolinska Institutet, who have shown that men carrying a combination of known risk genes run a four to five times higher risk of developing prostate cancer. At present, men with suspected prostate cancer are identified mainly using what are known as...

Newly discovered virus linked to deadly skin cancer

Painstaking screening of DNA sequencing data has revealed a previously unknown virus that appears to be strongly associated with a rare but deadly skin cancer called Merkel cell carcinoma, researchers from the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute report in this week's issue of the journal Science. In the paper, the researchers, who found the cause of Kaposi's sarcoma, also describe a nearly...

Oak Ridge leads DOE INCITE effort in 2008

Scientific studies on climate change, energy and alternative fuels are among the 30 projects awarded more than 145 million processing hours on supercomputers at ORNL through the DOE's Innovative and Novel Computational Impact on Theory and Experiment program. Through INCITE, researchers from industry, academia and government research facilities receive access to computing power at the National...

Paired microbes eliminate methane using sulfur pathway

Anaerobic microbes in the Earth's oceans consume 90 percent of the methane produced by methane hydrates -- methane trapped in ice -- preventing large amounts of methane from reaching the atmosphere. Researchers now have evidence that the two microbes that accomplish this feat do not simply reverse the way methane-producing microbes work, but use a sulfur compound instead.

Plant pathogen yields substance to fight neuroblastoma

Drug treatment of neuroblastoma, a tumor of the nervous system in children, poses major problems. Therefore, scientists at the German Cancer Research Center have been searching for substances that are suitable as a basis for developing better drugs. Now they have found a candidate: HC-toxin, which is isolated from a fungal plant pathogen. The substance from the maize pathogen reprograms...

Predators do more than kill prey

In a new study characterizing the complex ecological interactions that shape how organisms evolve, University of California, Riverside biologists Matthew Walsh and David Reznick present a novel way of quantifying the indirect effects of predators by showing that prey adapt to food availability as well as the presence of predators.

Rapid effects of intensive therapy seen in brains of patients with OCD

In a study that may significantly advance the understanding of how cognitive-behavioral therapy affects the brain, researchers have shown that significant changes in activity in certain regions of the brain can be produced with as little as four weeks of daily therapy in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. The discovery could have important clinical implications, according to principal...

Report identifies research to bolster knowledge of health effects of wireless communication devices

The rapid increase in the use of wireless communication devices in recent years has been accompanied by a significant amount of research into potential health effects from high exposure to radiofrequency energy emitted by these devices. A new National Research Council report, requested by the US Food and Drug Administration, identifies research that could further extend understanding of long-term...