ESF's workshop restores good name of sugar
160,892 articles from EurekAlert
Europe should adopt WHO recommendations for particulate matter cuts
Sugars were once credited with magical healing powers but are now seen like salt as an evil necessary in small doses but the cause of numerous diseases such as diabetes if taken in excess. Yet latest research suggests this view ignores the vital role played by more complex sugars in many biological structures, and the great therapeutic potential they have.
Evidence found for genes that affect risk of developing Alzheimer's disease
Europe must adopt the World Health Organization standard on fine particulate matter pollution if it is to significantly curb needless premature deaths, concludes research in the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health.
Genetic diversity of European Americans and disease gene mapping
Through one of the largest studies yet of Alzheimer's disease patients and their brothers, sisters, and children, researchers at Mayo Clinic Jacksonville have found strong evidence that genes other than the well-known susceptibility risk factor APOE4 influence who is at risk for developing the neurodegenerative disease later in life.
Genome scan shows Polynesians have little genetic relationship to Melanesians
In a recent study, published in the open-access journal PLoS Genetics, an international team of researchers provide the first genetic dissection of the population structure of European Americans, focusing on identifying the contributions from different genetic ancestries that are important for disease gene mapping.
Human activities contribute to California's global warming
The origins and current genetic relationships of Pacific Islanders have generated interest and controversy for many decades. Now, a new comprehensive genetic study of almost 1,000 individuals has revealed that Polynesians and Micronesians have almost no genetic relation to Melanesians, and that groups that live in the islands of Melanesia are remarkably diverse.
Increased risk of heart attack or stroke for patients who are resistant to aspirin
Over the past 85 years, humans have helped shape California climate during certain seasons.
JCI table of contents: Jan. 17, 2008
Being resistant to aspirin makes patients four times more likely to suffer a heart attack, stroke or even die from a pre-existing heart condition, according to a study published on bmj.com today.
Jefferson scientists uncover role of cancer stem cell marker: controlling gene expression
This release contains summaries, links to PDFs, and contact information for the following newsworthy papers to be published online, Jan. 17, 2008, in the JCI: Engineered mice provide insight into Alzheimer disease; Scratching an itch: neutralizing IL-22 prevents psoriasis in mice; Seeing is believing: visualizing inflammation in fat tissue; and Factor I complements the kidney.
Just hours apart, 2 brothers undergo robotic prostate cancer surgery
Scientists at Jefferson's Kimmel Cancer Center in Philadelphia have made an extraordinary advance in the understanding of the function of a gene previously shown to be part of an 11-gene "signature" that can predict which tumors will be aggressive and likely to spread. The gene, USP22, encodes an enzyme that appears to be crucial for controlling large scale changes in gene expression, one of the...
Materials' crystal properties illuminated by mathematical 'lighthouse'
Two brothers from Savannah, Georgia diagnosed with prostate cancer flew to The Mount Sinai Medical Center in New York to have lifesaving surgery on the same day this week. Dr. David B. Samadi, MD, Chief of Robotics and Minimally Invasive Surgery in the Department of Urology at Mount Sinai successfully performed the robotic prostate cancer surgeries on the siblings one after another on Monday, Jan....
New function for colon cancer gene found
A deeper fundamental understanding of complex materials may now be possible, thanks to a pair of Princeton scientists who have uncovered a new insight into how crystals form. The researchers' findings reveal a previously unknown mathematical relationship between the different arrangements that interacting particles can take while freezing. The discovery could give scientists insight into the...
New gene test for prostate cancer at hand
Dartmouth Medical School geneticists have discovered a striking turnabout role for a gatekeeper known to put on the brakes for colon cancer. Flaws in a gene called adenomatous polyposis coli, which normally prevents excessive cell growth, are thought to trigger development of most colorectal cancers. But in an about face, the tumor suppressor gene also has a second task, the researchers found, as...
New way to produce high-vitamin corn could improve nutrition in developing countries
Men with susceptibility for prostate cancer will soon be identifiable through a simple DNA test. So hope scientists at the Swedish medical university Karolinska Institutet, who have shown that men carrying a combination of known risk genes run a four to five times higher risk of developing prostate cancer. At present, men with suspected prostate cancer are identified mainly using what are known as...
Newly discovered virus linked to deadly skin cancer
Scientists have developed a new method for producing high-vitamin corn that may decrease the frequency of diseases caused by poor nutrition in developing countries.
NICE guidelines on breast cancer follow-up need urgent revision
Painstaking screening of DNA sequencing data has revealed a previously unknown virus that appears to be strongly associated with a rare but deadly skin cancer called Merkel cell carcinoma, researchers from the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute report in this week's issue of the journal Science. In the paper, the researchers, who found the cause of Kaposi's sarcoma, also describe a nearly...
Oak Ridge leads DOE INCITE effort in 2008
The NICE guidelines on follow-up for breast cancer patients need urgent revision, warn experts in this week's BMJ.
Paired microbes eliminate methane using sulfur pathway
Scientific studies on climate change, energy and alternative fuels are among the 30 projects awarded more than 145 million processing hours on supercomputers at ORNL through the DOE's Innovative and Novel Computational Impact on Theory and Experiment program. Through INCITE, researchers from industry, academia and government research facilities receive access to computing power at the National...
Palestinian refugees living in 'slum conditions'
Anaerobic microbes in the Earth's oceans consume 90 percent of the methane produced by methane hydrates -- methane trapped in ice -- preventing large amounts of methane from reaching the atmosphere. Researchers now have evidence that the two microbes that accomplish this feat do not simply reverse the way methane-producing microbes work, but use a sulfur compound instead.
Plant pathogen yields substance to fight neuroblastoma
Palestinian refugees in unofficial camps are living in slum conditions redolent of UK housing in the last century, finds research in the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health.
Predators do more than kill prey
Drug treatment of neuroblastoma, a tumor of the nervous system in children, poses major problems. Therefore, scientists at the German Cancer Research Center have been searching for substances that are suitable as a basis for developing better drugs. Now they have found a candidate: HC-toxin, which is isolated from a fungal plant pathogen. The substance from the maize pathogen reprograms...
Rapid effects of intensive therapy seen in brains of patients with OCD
In a new study characterizing the complex ecological interactions that shape how organisms evolve, University of California, Riverside biologists Matthew Walsh and David Reznick present a novel way of quantifying the indirect effects of predators by showing that prey adapt to food availability as well as the presence of predators.
Recalled toy beads still available in the UK, warn doctors
In a study that may significantly advance the understanding of how cognitive-behavioral therapy affects the brain, researchers have shown that significant changes in activity in certain regions of the brain can be produced with as little as four weeks of daily therapy in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. The discovery could have important clinical implications, according to principal...
Relatives who decline organ donations face conflict and guilt
Toy beads that were internationally recalled last year, after concerns that they may be coated with a dangerous chemical, are still being advertised on toy shop websites for purchase in the UK, warn doctors in this week's BMJ.
Report identifies research to bolster knowledge of health effects of wireless communication devices
Even when family members support organ donation, there's no guarantee that it will happen when someone dies, according to a UK study just published. Conflicts between 'gift of life' and 'sacrifice' pose real dilemmas for relatives.
The rapid increase in the use of wireless communication devices in recent years has been accompanied by a significant amount of research into potential health effects from high exposure to radiofrequency energy emitted by these devices. A new National Research Council report, requested by the US Food and Drug Administration, identifies research that could further extend understanding of long-term...