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133,148 articles from ScienceDaily

Immunosuppressive Drugs Are A Double-edged Sword To Type 1 Diabetics

Type 1 diabetes occurs when immune cells destroy pancreatic insulin producing beta-cells. It was hoped that islet transplantation would provide a cure for the disease, however, transplant success is short-lived and accompanied by significant side effects. New data indicate that the immunosuppressive drugs used to prevent islet transplant rejection suppress beta-cell regeneration in diabetic mice,...


FRIDAY 7. SEPTEMBER 2007


Widely Held Beliefs About Early Cherokee Settlement Patterns Likely Incorrect

By 1763, the world of Cherokee Indians in the Southeastern U.S. was in tatters. The French and Indian War had wracked the sprawling Cherokee settlements that stretched from the headwaters of the Savannah River in South Carolina and Georgia to the Overhills towns in eastern Tennessee. Though 75 years would pass before the Trail of Tears would banish the remnants of the nation west to Oklahoma, the...

How To Enhance Muscle Function

Skeletal muscle is composed of two types of muscle fiber, slow and fast, which have different capabilities -- slow fibers do not tire easily and are high endurance, whereas fast fibers tire easily and are low endurance. The relative amount of each fiber type is determined by muscle usage -- exercise training causes fast fibers to become slow fibers, whereas inactivity that results in muscle...

Microfluidic Chambers Advance The Science Of Growing Neurons

Researchers have developed a method for culturing mammalian neurons in chambers not much larger than the neurons themselves. The new approach extends the lifespan of the neurons at very low densities, an essential step toward developing a method for studying the growth and behavior of individual brain cells.

Genes Associated With Schizophrenia Evolved Rapidly Due To Selection During Human Evolution

Several genes with strong associations to schizophrenia have evolved rapidly due to selection during human evolution, according to new research. Researchers found a higher prevalence of the influence of so-called positive selection on genes or gene regions known to be associated with the disorder than a comparable control set of non-associated genes, functioning in similar neuronal processes. This...

Computer Scientists Take The 'Why' Out Of WiFi

UCSD computer scientists have designed a system that automatically analyzes the behavior of all the WiFi connections in the UCSD computer science building. "In the end, we can say 'it's because of this that your wireless is slow or has stopped working' -- and we can tell you immediately," said one of the computer science professors working on the research.

Computerized Treatment Of Manuscripts

Researchers working on the automatic recognition of manuscript documents have designed a new system that is more efficient and reliable than currently existing ones. The BSM ("Blurred Shape Model") has been designed to work with ancient, damaged or difficult to read manuscripts, handwritten scores and architectural drawings. It represents at the same time an effective human machine interface in...

'Rain Man' Mice Provide Model For Autism

Mice containing a mutated human gene implicated in autism exhibit the poor social skills but increased intelligence akin to the title character's traits in the movie "Rain Man," researchers have found. The researchers' study also shows how the mutation affects nerve function and provides an animal model that might allow further study of the debilitating condition.

'Wiki City Rome' To Draw A Map Like No Other

Residents of Italy's capital will glimpse the future of urban mapmaking with the launch of "Wiki City Rome," a project developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology that uses data from cellphones and other wireless technology to illustrate the city's pulse in real time. The project will debut Sept. 8 during Rome's "Notte Bianca" or white night, an all-night festival of events across the...

Acid Rain Has A Disproportionate Impact On Coastal Waters

The release of sulfur and nitrogen into the atmosphere by power plants and agricultural activities plays a minor role in making the ocean more acidic on a global scale, but the impact is greatly amplified in the shallower waters of the coastal ocean, according to new research by atmospheric and marine chemists.

Diabetes: Expanding Beta-cell Numbers

The underlying cause of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes is that there are insufficient pancreatic beta-cells to control the level of glucose in the blood. Given its potential impact on the treatment of diabetes, deciphering the molecular pathways that control beta-cell proliferation is an area of intensive investigation. In a new study scientists show that the protein Skp2 has a critical role in...

Future Career Path Of Gifted Youth Can Be Predicted By Age 13 By SAT

The future career path and creative direction of gifted youth can be predicted well by their performance on the SAT at age 13, a new study from Vanderbilt University finds. The study offers insights into how best to identify the nation's most talented youth. Overall, the creative potential of the participants was extraordinary. The findings contradict recent reports that the SAT has no predictive...

Low Vitamin D During Pregnancy Linked To Pre-eclampsia

Vitamin D deficiency early in pregnancy is associated with a five-fold increased risk of pre-eclampsia, reports a new study. A complication of pregnancy marked by soaring blood pressure, pre-eclampsia is a leading cause of maternal and fetal illness and death. Pre-eclampsia affects up to 7 percent of first pregnancies, and health-care costs associated with pre-eclampsia are estimated at $7 billion...

Making Gene Therapy Safer: Delivering Genes Via Polymers

In work that could lead to safe and effective techniques for gene therapy, MIT researchers have found a way to fine-tune the ability of biodegradable polymers to deliver genes. Gene therapy, which involves inserting new genes into patients' cells to fight diseases like cancer, holds great promise but has yet to realize its full potential, in part because of safety concerns over the conventional...

Mars Rovers Survive Severe Dust Storms, Ready For Next Objectives

Two months after sky-darkening dust from severe storms nearly killed NASA's Mars exploration rovers, the solar powered robots are awake and ready to continue their mission. Opportunity's planned descent into the giant Victoria Crater was delayed, but now the rover is preparing to drive into the 800-meter-diameter crater (half-mile-diameter) as early as Sept. 11. Spirit, Opportunity's rover twin,...

Newer Antidepressants Led To Less, Not More, Teen Suicides

Contrary to newly mandated FDA black-box warnings, a new study finds antidepressants dramatically lower suicide attempts in youth. Suicide is the third leading cause of death in adolescents in this country, following only unintentional injuries and homicide. In real numbers, about 30,000 young people take their own lives in America each year.

Prions May Activate Retroviruses In Infected Brain Cells

Prion proteins may activate endogenous retroviruses in infected brain cells. Prions – an abbreviation for proteinaceous infectious particles – work as a trigger to a set of diseases of the brain and nervous system, the so-called spongiform encephalopathies. These include BSE in cattle, scrapie in sheep and Creutzfeldt Jakob’s Disease in humans. Prions are structural variants of a...