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145,858 articles from ScienceDaily

Pancreatic Cancer Fights Off Immune Attack

Scientists have discovered that pancreatic cancer attracts regulatory T cells, which suppress the activity of immune cells. In this way, the tumor might escape its destruction by the immune system. The ability to discriminate between friend and foe or between "self" and "foreign" is vital for a functioning immune system. There are numerous protective mechanisms at work to save the body's own...

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: 1 In 15 Women Affected Worldwide And Burden Likely To Increase

The diverse and complex female endocrine disorder polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which affects 1 in 15 women worldwide, is a major economic health burden that is likely to expand together with obesity, conclude authors of a recent article. Many body systems are affected in PCOS, resulting in several health complications, including menstrual dysfunction, infertility, hirsutism (excessive body...

Volcanoes Key To Earth's Oxygen Atmosphere

A switch from predominantly undersea volcanoes to a mix of undersea and terrestrial ones shifted the Earth's atmosphere from devoid of oxygen to one with free oxygen, according to geologists. Before 2.5 billion years ago, the Earth's atmosphere lacked oxygen. However, biomarkers in rocks 200 million years older than that period, show oxygen-producing cyanobacteria released oxygen at the same...

Inside The Brain Of A Crayfish

Neurophysiology researchers commonly use crustaceans to try to gain basic understanding of the nervous systems of creatures in general, and, wherever possible, for extrapolating what they find to a basic understanding of the much more complex human brain. All animals, from single-celled amoebas to humans, use similar cellular processes to interpret their olfactory environment.

Melanoma Drug Activates Immune Cells To Fight Cancer

A new study shows that an important drug used in the treatment of malignant melanoma has little effect on the melanoma cells themselves. Instead, it activates immune-system cells to fight the disease. The drug, called interferon alpha, is used to clean up microscopic tumor cells that may remain in the body following surgery for the disease. It is the only drug approved for this purpose.

Molecular Pathway May Predict Chemotherapy Effectiveness

A common molecular pathway could help physicians predict which lung cancer patients will benefit from chemotherapy drugs, according to new research. Known as the retinoblastoma (RB) tumor suppressor, this fundamental molecule regulates cell proliferation in the body. Research has shown that the RB pathway is either entirely inactive or altered in most human cancers. Scientists are beginning to use...

Surprising New Role For Proteins In Sister Chromatid Cohesion

Scientists reveal a surprising new role for tDNAs and RNA polymerase III-associated proteins in sister chromatid cohesion. Sister chromatid cohesion (the binding together of the two identical copies of each chromosome that are formed during replication) helps to ensure that chromosomes are accurately segregated during the anaphase of the cell cycle. Sister chromatid cohesion is mediated by a...

Teenagers' Use Of Cell Phones After Bedtime Contributes To Poor Sleep

Cell phone use after bedtime is surprisingly prevalent among adolescents, and its use is related to increased levels of tiredness after one year. According to the results, only 38 percent of the subjects never used their cell phones after bedtime. Using the cell phone after bedtime about once a week increased the odds of being "very tired" by 3.3, and those who used it more than once a week were...

Inhaling Nitric Oxide Helps Transplant Success

Giving transplant patients NO gas boosts post-surgical liver function. The colorless gas improves post-surgical liver function by minimizing reperfusion injury, an unwanted side effect of restoring blood flow swiftly to a donor organ moments after transplantation into the recipient, the study authors said. NO can be toxic to humans if breathed at high doses without medical supervision.

Lack Of Sleep Among New School-goers Leads To Behavioral, Cognitive Problems

The first investigation of developmental sleep duration patterns throughout childhood shows that children just beginning school and who get little sleep are more likely to have behavioral and cognitive problems in the classroom, according to a new study. The research also suggests that language acquisition and the consolidation of new words into memory could be significantly impeded by chronically...

Seepage Of Drugs From Hog Farms Not An Environmental Problem, Study Suggests

Environmental activists have long criticized pharmaceutical use by hog farmers and veterinarians in treating swine disease, saying pharmaceuticals are being overused and errantly contaminating the environment. But new research suggests that environmental contamination from antibiotics does not pose appreciable risks to soil and aquatic organisms. The scientists have determined that pharmaceuticals...

When The Levees Fail

"A hard rain's a-gonna fall," Dylan sang. But when rain and storm surges fall on lands protected by weak levees, this means trouble...big trouble. Hurricanes Katrina and Rita were devastating reminders of this frightening fact. How then can we limit trouble when a levee breaches or, better yet, prevent such a break from ever happening again? There's another issue at play here besides horrendous...

Writing With Pictures: Toward A Unifying Theory Of Consumer Response To Images

Images in contemporary consumer culture may be seen as an emergent form of writing. Researchers argue that mass communications technology has created a "cultural classroom" in which the world's first democratic pictography has developed. They support this argument with a series of experiments that demonstrate contemporary consumers' ability to read pictures -- even abstract images -- as statements...

'Sweet' Biofuels Research Goes Down On The Farm

Sorghum-related biofuels research is taking a localized approach, with the aim of making possible the effective production of ethanol in the farmer's own field. Sweet sorghum can be grown throughout temperate climate zones of the United States and elsewhere. It provides high biomass yield with low irrigation and fertilizer requirements. Corn ethanol, in contrast, requires significant amounts of...

Bacteria From Sponges Make New Pharmaceuticals

Thousands of interesting new compounds have been discovered inside the bodies of marine sponges. Over half of the bodyweight of living sea sponges -- including the sort that we use in our baths -- is made up of the many different bacteria that live inside them, in the same way that we all have bacteria living in our guts which help us to digest our food. As well as their attempt to produce useful...

Bipolar Diagnosis In Youth Rapidly Climbing

The number of visits to a doctor's office that resulted in a diagnosis of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents has increased by 40 times over the last decade, reported researchers. Over the same time period, the number of visits by adults resulting in a bipolar disorder diagnosis almost doubled. The cause of these increases is unclear. Medication prescription patterns for the two groups...

Depression In Women With Migraine Linked To Childhood Abuse

Childhood abuse is more common in women with migraine who suffer depression than in women with migraine alone, according to a new study. The study found women with migraine who had major depression were twice as likely as those with migraine alone to report being sexually abused as a child. If the abuse continued past age 12, the women with migraine were five times more likely to report...

Fingerprinting Fake Coffee

With prices of gourmet coffee approaching sticker-shock levels, scientists in Illinois are reporting development of a method to "fingerprint" coffee to detect when corn has been mixed in to short-change customers. Researchers point out that such adulteration of Brazilian coffee is among the most serious problems affecting coffee quality -- with cereal grains, coffee twigs, and brown sugar...

Memory Enhancement Drugs Show Promise But Face Growing Scrutiny

In our aging society, with an increased urgency to develop new compounds that target serious illnesses like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, memory enhancement drugs are becoming a big business. But these same drugs are also creating a growing ethical controversy over their potential off-label uses, such as taking these drugs as "performance enhancers" to gain a competitive advantage in the...

Mice Stressed In Simulated Weightlessness Show Organ Atrophy

A ground-based, experimental model used to simulate astronaut weightlessness in space has provided scientists an opportunity to study the effects of stress on immune organs. The new study demonstrated that osteopontin is required for the atrophy of immune organs brought on by the stress resulting from hind limb unloading.

Nanomagnetic Sponges To Clean Precious Works Of Art

Chemists in Italy are reporting "a real breakthrough" in technology for cleaning and conserving priceless oil paintings, marble sculptures and other works of art in a new article. They have successfully tested "nanomagnetic sponges" to clean the artwork. The process could have a range of other applications in cosmetics, detergents, and biotechnology.