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151,456 articles from ScienceDaily

Hot Ice To Lubricate Artificial Joints

A recent simulation has shown that thin layers of ice could persist on specially treated diamond coatings at temperatures well above body temperature, which could make ice-coated-diamond films an ideal coating for artificial heart valves, joint replacements, and wear-resistant prosthetics.

Magnets Can Boost Production Of Ethanol For Fuel

In a finding that could reduce the cost of ethanol fuel, researchers in Brazil report success in using low frequency magnetic waves to significantly boost the amount of ethanol produced through the fermentation of sugar. While bioethanol (ethanol produced from corn and other plants) is a promising alternative to fossil fuels, it currently is expensive and inefficient to make. An intensive research...

How Human Body Fights Off African Parasite

Trypanosoma are a nasty class of single-celled parasites that cause serious, even fatal, diseases in human and animals. Two species cause sleeping sickness, a disease that threatens all of sub--Saharan Africa. There's a catch though: one parasite, Trypanosoma brucei brucei (T. b. brucei), infects animals but seems to spare humans, and scientists haven't quite understood why. A team of researchers...

Synthesizing Gas, Making Energy

A way to convert natural gas into raw materials for the chemical industry and generate power as a by-product could lead to more environmental benign manufacturing processes. Making synthesis gas -- a blend of hydrogen and carbon monoxide -- is a key step in turning natural gas or biomass into bulk chemicals, such as acetic acid, methanol, oxygenated alcohols, isocyanates, and ammonia, which are...

United States Continues To Have Highest Level Of Health Spending

Researchers report that the United States continues to spend the most on health care when compared to other Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries. Health care prices and higher per capita incomes are major factors for higher U.S. spending, according to a new study. Compared to the average OECD country in 2004, the United States has fewer health resources—physicians,...

New Options In 'Personalized' Cancer Treatment And Prevention

Molecular diagnostics promises to provide new strategies for tailoring therapies to fit the needs of each cancer patient's unique biology. Researchers can now fine-tuned the treatment of a number of different cancer types, including lung and ovarian, based on the genetic profile of the patient's tumors.

Pediatricians May Miss Developmental Delays, But Parents Can Help

A simple questionnaire requiring no more than 15 minutes of a parent's time before or after a doctor's appointment is credited with a 224-percent increase in referrals of one-year-old and two-year-old children with mild developmental delays in a yearlong study. The study also indicated that physicians had a greater difficulty identifying delays at 12 months compared to 24 months. The authors noted...

A Balanced Memory Network

Ever wonder how much information we put in our heads? The answer: a lot. For starters, a typical vocabulary is 50,000-250,000 words. And then there are all the little details that stretch back decades -- the house we grew up in, the time we spilled orange juice on our test back in third grade, the solution to a quadratic equation (for some of us). So where do we put it all? If we had hard drives...

Personal Chaos In HIV Patients' Lives May Be A Barrier To Regular Medical Care, Study Shows

Unstable and unpredictable lifestyles are significant factors in determining access to health care among low-income, HIV-positive people, a new study has found. The study found that when HIV patients lead chaotic lives -- meaning they are disorganized or experience too many unexpected events -- that chaos can act as a barrier to regular medical care. The researchers also developed a new scale to...

A Step Toward Tissue-engineered Heart Structures For Children

Infants and children receiving artificial heart-valve replacements face several repeat operations as they grow, since the since the replacements become too small and must be traded for bigger ones. Researchers have now developed a solution: living, growing valves created in the lab from a patient's own cells. They can now make pulmonary valves through tissue engineering.

Cell Phone Use Not Linked To Brain Cancer, Study Suggests

Mobile phones have not been found to be associated with any biological or adverse health effects, according to the UK's largest investigation into the possible health risks from mobile telephone technology. The six year research program has found no association between short term mobile phone use and brain cancer.

Computer Poetry Pushes The Genre Envelope

What happens to poetry in the Digital Age? In one of the first academic works in the field, a Swedish researcher has studied how the ability of the computer to combine words, images, movement and sounds is impacting both writing and reading.

Confuse Your Customer, Then Explain Simply: They Buy It

An article in the Journal of Consumer Research examines the effectiveness of a new confusion-based sales technique called "disrupt-then-reframe." The researchers found that by presenting a confusing sales pitch to consumers and then restating the pitch in a more familiar way, they were able to increase sales of a candy bar in a supermarket, increase students' willingness to pay to join a student...

Corals Added To IUCN Red List Of Threatened Species For First Time

For the first time in history, the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species includes ocean corals in its annual report of wildlife going extinct. A comprehensive study of marine life sponsored by Conservation International concluded that three species of corals unique to the Galapagos Islands could soon disappear forever. The 2007 IUCN Red List designates two of the corals as Critically Endangered,...

Improved Manufacturing Process: Software Cuts The 'Chatter' In High Speed Machining

An engineer has helped find a way to "cut the chatter" in high-speed machining of aluminum and titanium aircraft parts. Chatter in milling is an instability that arises because the cutting tool vibrates, making oscillating patterns on the work piece. The tool goes over the patterns, making the tool vibrate even more, yielding deeper patterns in the work piece, worsening until eventually the...

Manic Phase Of Bipolar Disorder Benefits From Breast Cancer Medication

The manic phase of bipolar disorder favors destructive behaviors. Stemming it quickly is important. Tamoxifen's effects were dramatic -- 63 percent of patients responded vs. 13 percent on placebo -- and it kicked in faster than many current medications. Tamoxifen skips some of current drugs' biochemical steps and acts directly on the enzyme protein-kinase C, giving scientists a more direct target...

Mars: Mysterious Ridges At The Mouth Of Tiu Valles

Mars Express shows the mouth of the Tiu Valles channel system on Mars. The mouth of Tiu Valles is an estuary-like landform. On Earth, an estuary is the tidal mouth of a river valley, or the end that meets the sea and fresh water comes into contact with seawater. In such an area, tidal effects are evident.

Mathematics Might Save You A Trip To The ER

In an effort to better understand seasonality, or cyclic recurrences of disease, researchers have developed mathematical models utilizing daily data to more accurately predict the timing, severity and impact of disease. Developing such precise models is a step toward improving disease surveillance and public health alert systems, both of which are crucial to preventing the spread of some diseases.

More Sick Leave Given To Men By Male GPs Compared With Female Counterparts

Male patients are given more certified sick leave by male doctors compared with the amount of sick notes given to females by female doctors, a new study has revealed. Mild mental disorders (MMDs) such as depression and anxiety were the commonest cause of complaint by women, followed by musculoskeletal problems for which males sought a higher proportion of medical attention. The research revealed...

New Emissions Testing Regulation Gives Repair Shops Reasons To Cheat

In the never-ending quest to make sure cars are not spewing large quantities of pollution into the air, states are implementing new and easier ways to ensure automobiles are both safe and environmentally friendly. But there's a potential problem with the new plan, according to a business professor: repair shops have very strong incentives to cheat, but not in a way that helps reduce pollution.