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156,752 articles from ScienceDaily

Mice Thrive Missing Ancient DNA Sequences

Ultraconserved elements are DNA sequences, hundreds of base pairs long, that are 100-percent identical in mice, rats and humans. Their perfect conservation for over 80 million years was thought due to evolutionary pressure, such that if even one nucleotide changes, the organism would die. But in a new study knockout mice with deleted ultraconserved elements showed virtually no ill effects.

New Eating Disorder Identified

A case is being made for a new eating disorder, dubbed "purging disorder." The disorder is similar to bulimia nervosa in that both syndromes involve eating, then trying to compensate for the calories. What sets the disorders apart is the amount of food consumed and the way people compensate for what they eat.

New Imaging Technique Reveals Fatty Hearts In Pre-diabetics

A simple new imaging technique has revealed fat buildup in the hearts of pre-diabetic people long before symptoms of heart disease or diabetes appear. The technique detects fat accumulation in cells of the beating heart in a way no other clinical method can, the researchers said, and may provide a way to screen patients for early signs of heart disease in diabetes.

Once Ocular Melanoma Has Spread, New Drug Combination May Help

A combination of two drugs shows promise in treating a rare and therapy-resistant type of melanoma that originates in the eye and spreads to other organs, according to a new study. The drugs -- decitabine, which can turn on certain genes in cancer cells, and interferon gamma, an immune system protein -- may work together to cause cancer cell death.

Overcoming Dyslexia: Timing Of 'Connections' In Brain Is Key

Using new software developed to investigate how the brains of dyslexic children are organized, researchers have found that key areas for language and working memory involved in reading are connected differently in dyslexics than in children who are good readers and spellers. However, a three-week instructional program can normalize those connections.

Simple Method To Create Natural Drug Products Developed

Until now, only the intricate machinery inside cells could take a mix of enzyme ingredients, blend them together and deliver a natural product with an elaborate chemical structure such as penicillin. Researchers have for the first time demonstrated the ability to mimic this process outside of a cell.

Stellar Firework In A Whirlwind

In July 2006, ESO's Very Large Telescope took images of a stellar firework in the spiral galaxy NGC 1288. The supernova -- designated SN 2006dr -- was at its peak brightness, shining as bright as the entire galaxy itself, bearing witness to the amount of energy released.

Teens Need To See Their Doctors More Often

Despite recommendations for annual preventive exams for adolescents, only 10 percent of teens have enough visits within 12 months to receive the recommended three shots needed for HPV vaccine. Ideally the three shots are delivered within six months, and only 1 percent of teens see their physicians that often.

Tropical Crab Invades Georgia Oyster Reefs

A dime-sized tropical crab that has invaded coastal waters in the Southeast United States is having both positive and negative effects on oyster reefs, leaving researchers unable to predict what the creature's long-term impact will be. The impact of the crabs is important because oysters are a "foundation species" essential to the health of coastal ecosystems because their reefs provide homes to...

Two Nanostructures Are Better Than One

Engineers have pioneered an easy and inexpensive method for creating hybrid structures by coating CNTs with aerosol nanoparticles. The lab also has produced a low-cost way to make "custom" nanoparticles that gives them full control over the structure's final properties.


MONDAY 3. SEPTEMBER 2007


Ability To 'Tell The Difference' Declines As Infants Age

A new article suggests that infants fine-tune their visual and auditory systems to stimuli during the first year of life, essentially "weeding out" unnecessary discriminatory abilities. In one study, for example, 6-month-old infants were able to differentiate two human a faces as easily as two monkey faces whereas 9-month-olds could only differentiate between two human faces. Importantly, if...

Concern Over Recognizing Serious Illness In Feverish Children

A British physician believes the medical system in Britain should be offering less telephone advice and more opportunities for prompt assessment by an experienced clinician when a child has a fever. He says that the most solid evidence of recognizing clinical severity in febrile children in primary care is a full assessment by an experienced clinician. This involves eliciting a clear history and...

Male Deer Are Born To Live Fast, Die Young

Natural selection favors reproduction rather than survival. Males of ungulate species subjected to intense male-male competition in order to mate have shorter lives than females. Males are born already with smaller molars relative to their body size, which means the teeth won't last as long. These findings provide insight into how natural and sexual selection design our bodies.

Secondhand Smoke Is A Health Threat To Pets

It has been in the news for years about how secondhand smoke is a health threat to nonsmokers. Secondhand smoke is attributed with killing thousands of adult nonsmokers annually. If smoking is that harmful to human beings, it would make sense that secondhand smoke would have an adverse effect on pets that live in the homes of smokers. Researchers note that, "one reason cats are so susceptible to...

Sports Medicine Physicians Brace For The Injuries Of Football Season

Football fever is upon the nation once again. The soaring of the pigskin signals the start of the "busy" season for cheerleaders, marching bands, and inevitably, sports medicine physicians. Prevention is the primary goal of everyone involved in the sport, but when large, highly charged males engage in bodily contact, injuries are inevitable. Knee and ankle sprains are the most common injuries...

A Genetic Trigger For The Cambrian Explosion Unraveled?

A team of scientists has developed a novel methodological approach in evolutionary studies. Using the method they named 'genomic phylostratigraphy', its authors shed new and unexpected light on some of the long standing macroevolutionary issues, which have been puzzling evolutionary biologists since Darwin.

Back To School: Cramming Doesn't Work In The Long Term

Psychologists have been assessing how well various study strategies produce long-term learning, and it appears that some strategies really do work much better than others. Surprisingly "massing" all the study on a single topic into a single session reduces long-term retention. It's better to leave it alone for a while and then return to it.

Molecules Line Up To Make The Tiniest Of Wires

As technology gets smaller and smaller, the computer industry is facing the complex challenge of finding ways to manufacture the minuscule components necessary. Now scientists have demonstrated a technique for producing conductive nano-wires on silicon chips. While the new process could provide the solution for computer manufacturers looking for ways of increasing the speed and storage capacity of...

Pancreatic Cancer Fights Off Immune Attack

Scientists have discovered that pancreatic cancer attracts regulatory T cells, which suppress the activity of immune cells. In this way, the tumor might escape its destruction by the immune system. The ability to discriminate between friend and foe or between "self" and "foreign" is vital for a functioning immune system. There are numerous protective mechanisms at work to save the body's own...

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: 1 In 15 Women Affected Worldwide And Burden Likely To Increase

The diverse and complex female endocrine disorder polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which affects 1 in 15 women worldwide, is a major economic health burden that is likely to expand together with obesity, conclude authors of a recent article. Many body systems are affected in PCOS, resulting in several health complications, including menstrual dysfunction, infertility, hirsutism (excessive body...

Volcanoes Key To Earth's Oxygen Atmosphere

A switch from predominantly undersea volcanoes to a mix of undersea and terrestrial ones shifted the Earth's atmosphere from devoid of oxygen to one with free oxygen, according to geologists. Before 2.5 billion years ago, the Earth's atmosphere lacked oxygen. However, biomarkers in rocks 200 million years older than that period, show oxygen-producing cyanobacteria released oxygen at the same...

Inside The Brain Of A Crayfish

Neurophysiology researchers commonly use crustaceans to try to gain basic understanding of the nervous systems of creatures in general, and, wherever possible, for extrapolating what they find to a basic understanding of the much more complex human brain. All animals, from single-celled amoebas to humans, use similar cellular processes to interpret their olfactory environment.

Melanoma Drug Activates Immune Cells To Fight Cancer

A new study shows that an important drug used in the treatment of malignant melanoma has little effect on the melanoma cells themselves. Instead, it activates immune-system cells to fight the disease. The drug, called interferon alpha, is used to clean up microscopic tumor cells that may remain in the body following surgery for the disease. It is the only drug approved for this purpose.