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159,573 articles from ScienceDaily

Fighting Malaria By Tricking Mosquito's Sense Of Smell

By mapping a specialized sensory organ that the malaria mosquito uses to zero in on its human prey, researchers have taken an important step toward developing new and improved repellents and attractants that can be used to reduce the threat of malaria, generally considered the most prevalent life-threatening disease in the world.

Neurotransmitter Current Not Flowing Through Ion Channels

In studying how neurotransmitters travel between cells, Cornell researchers have discovered that an electrical current thought to be present during that process does not, in fact, exist. The scientists explained that neurotransmitters and hormones are stored in neurons -- nerve cells -- in small packets, membrane-bound vesicles, typically 30 to 300 nanometers in diameter. When a cell is stimulated...

One-fourth Of HIV Patients Believe Their Doctors Stigmatize Them

Physicians might want to be extra careful about how they treat HIV-infected patients --not just in the clinical sense but in the way they behave toward them. Even the perception that physicians are stigmatizing patients for carrying the virus that causes AIDS can discourage these individuals from seeking proper medical care, according to a new study.

Who Will Recover Spontaneously From Hepatitis C Virus Infection?

Twenty to fifty percent of HCV infected patients recovers spontaneously. Scientists have investigated 67 spontaneously recovered patients and found that co-infection by hepatitis B virus is associated with a higher possibility of self recovery. In addition, patients who self recovered usually have lower levels of HCV antibody. But on the other hand, the researchers also found that active IV drug...

Eco-tilling Detects Herbicide Resistance Early

A new molecular tool to help farmers address one of the major threats to conventional agricultural practices -- herbicide resistance -- has just been developed. More than 305 types of weed in more than 50 countries have been reported to be resistant to at least one herbicide, and an increasing number of weeds owe their success to their genetic diversity. Scientists say techniques are needed to...

Factors That Accelerate Resistance To Targeted Therapy In Lymphoblastic Leukemia Found

New results explain why the targeted therapy drug, imatinib, or Gleevec™, which has revolutionized the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia, (CML) is often unable to prevent relapse of a particularly aggressive form of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Targeted therapy drugs are designed to block the activity of a specific molecule, a strategy aimed at making treatments more effective...

Investigating The Evolution Of Drug Resistance In Malaria Parasites

Scientists hope to understand how the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum evolved resistance to the once-effective medication chloroquine. They have about 11,000 archived human blood samples from malarious regions of the Pacific collected from the 1950s to the present. The samples will be analyzed and researchers will document the accumulation of genetic changes that resulted in chloroquine's...

You're Likely To Order More Calories At A 'Healthy' Restaurant

A new study explains the "American obesity paradox": the parallel rise in obesity rates and the popularity of healthier food. In a series of four studies, the researchers reveal that we over-generalize "healthy" claims. In fact, consumers chose beverages, side dishes, and desserts containing up to 131 percent more calories when the main dish was positioned as "healthy."

'Alien' Jaws Help Moray Eels Feed

Moray eels have a unique way of feeding reminiscent of a science fiction thriller, researchers have discovered. After seizing prey in its jaws, a second set of jaws located in the moray's throat reaches forward into the mouth, grabs the food and carries it back to the esophagus for swallowing.

A Dog In The Hand Scares Birds In The Bush

New research showing that dog-walking in bushland significantly reduces bird diversity and abundance will lend support to bans against the practice in sensitive bushland and conservation areas. Until now, arguments and debate about the ecological impacts of dog-walking have remained subjective and unresolved because experimental evidence has been lacking.

A Faster Class Of Antidepressants

Studies with rats have revealed the potential in an entirely new class of antidepressants that take effect after only days of treatment versus the weeks required for current drugs. The researchers said that they hope their findings will spur development of such new antidepressant drugs so that clinical testing can begin quickly.

A Force For Democracy -- Or Information Chaos? Expert Forum Spotlights Blogging

Controversial Internet entrepreneur turned cultural critic Andrew Keen, who says the revolution of interactivity and user-generated content on the internet is leading to 'less culture, less reliable news and a chaos of useless information' is one contributor certain to ignite debate at the two-day conference at the University of York. Innovations such as Facebook, MySpace and YouTube -- known as...

Adult Brain Can Change, Study Confirms

It is well established that a child's brain has a remarkable capacity for change, but controversy continues about the extent to which such plasticity exists in the adult human primary sensory cortex. Now, neuroscientists have used converging evidence from brain imaging and behavioral studies to show that the adult visual cortex does indeed reorganize -- and that the change affects visual...

Air Quality In Airplanes: Blame Ozone And Natural Oils On Skin

Airline passengers and crews who gripe about poor cabin air quality could have a new culprit to blame: the oils on their skin, hair and clothing. A new study suggests interactions between body oils and ozone found in airplane cabins could lead to the formation of chemical byproducts that might worsen nasal irritation, headaches, dry eyes and lips, and other common air traveler complaints.

Ancient Human DNA Extracted From Yucca Leaves Spat Out

In a groundbreaking study, two Harvard scientists have for the first time extracted human DNA from ancient artifacts. The work potentially opens up a new universe of sources for ancient genetic material, which is used to map human migrations in prehistoric times. Before this, archaeologists could only get ancient DNA from relics of the human body itself, including prehistoric teeth, bones,...

Angkor -- Medieval 'Hydraulic City' -- Unwittingly Engineered Its Environmental Collapse

The architects of Cambodia's famed Angkor -- the world's most extensive medieval "hydraulic city" -- unwittingly engineered its environmental collapse, say scientists. This revelation supports a disputed hypothesis by French archaeologist Bernard-Philippe Groslier, who 50 years ago suggested that the vast medieval settlement of Angkor was defined, sustained, and ultimately overwhelmed by...

Birch Trees To Edge Out Aspens In Warming World

Birches will likely drive out many aspens in northern forests as mounting levels of carbon dioxide force the trees to compete more fiercely for soil nutrients in the coming decades, according to a recent article. Carbon dioxide is emitted when fossil fuels are burned, and it's a heat-trapping gas blamed for global warming. But rising carbon dioxide levels also have a fertilizing effect on trees...

Brain's Timing Linked With Timescales Of The Natural Visual World

Researchers have long attempted to unravel the code used by the neurons of the brain to represent our visual world. By studying the way the brain rapidly and precisely encodes natural visual events that occur on a slower timescale, a team of bioengineers and brain scientists have moved one step closer towards solving this riddle.

Climatic Variations Influence The Emergence Of Cholera In Africa

In studies aiming to understand better the emergence and persistence of cholera in Africa, researchers showed the strong correlation that exists between outbreaks and the different parameters linked to climate changes in West Africa. This research should provide the scientists with the basis for creating a predictive model which could improve early warning of risks by anticipating the emergence of...

Coral Reef Fish Harbor An Unexpectedly High Biodiversity Of Parasites

A grouper fish found off New Caledonia was found to be parasitized by 12 species of microscopic monogenean worms. This diversity of parasites has just been confirmed also in the malabar grouper, another the coral reef species. If such a level of parasite diversity prevails in all coral-reef fish, tens of thousands of parasite species are in this ecosystem waiting to be discovered.

Crossing The Line Between Tired And Fatigued

Jennifer Sieck knew something had to be done when she would lie in bed most of the day and night. "It would be a big deal and everyone would get excited if I'd come down to the living room and could sit there for 10 or 20 minutes," the 38 year old says. Sieck was more than just drowsy; she was fatigued, and no amount of sleep could shake her exhaustion. "It's not about being tired, it's about...

Curbing C. Difficile's Toxin Production

Researchers have discovered how the protein CodY controls toxin production of Clostridium difficile, a bacterium that has caused epidemics of severe diarrhea in hospital patients. In its search for food, C. difficile releases toxins that cause diarrhea and in rare cases death. Gaining a better understanding of how CodY prevents C. difficile from making toxins may lead to future drug development...

Doctor's Gender May Hinder Early Diagnosis Of Heart Disease In Women

A doctor's gender may hinder early hinder early diagnosis of heart disease in women. Twice as many women as men aged 45-64 have undetected or "silent" myocardial infarctions, suggesting a general diagnosis problem. Despite the fact that all the patients gave case histories that should have resulted in a clear diagnosis of coronary heart disease, the results showed that doctors were significantly...