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167,091 articles from ScienceDaily

Genes Associated With Schizophrenia Evolved Rapidly Due To Selection During Human Evolution

Several genes with strong associations to schizophrenia have evolved rapidly due to selection during human evolution, according to new research. Researchers found a higher prevalence of the influence of so-called positive selection on genes or gene regions known to be associated with the disorder than a comparable control set of non-associated genes, functioning in similar neuronal processes. This...

Computer Scientists Take The 'Why' Out Of WiFi

UCSD computer scientists have designed a system that automatically analyzes the behavior of all the WiFi connections in the UCSD computer science building. "In the end, we can say 'it's because of this that your wireless is slow or has stopped working' -- and we can tell you immediately," said one of the computer science professors working on the research.

Computerized Treatment Of Manuscripts

Researchers working on the automatic recognition of manuscript documents have designed a new system that is more efficient and reliable than currently existing ones. The BSM ("Blurred Shape Model") has been designed to work with ancient, damaged or difficult to read manuscripts, handwritten scores and architectural drawings. It represents at the same time an effective human machine interface in...

'Rain Man' Mice Provide Model For Autism

Mice containing a mutated human gene implicated in autism exhibit the poor social skills but increased intelligence akin to the title character's traits in the movie "Rain Man," researchers have found. The researchers' study also shows how the mutation affects nerve function and provides an animal model that might allow further study of the debilitating condition.

'Wiki City Rome' To Draw A Map Like No Other

Residents of Italy's capital will glimpse the future of urban mapmaking with the launch of "Wiki City Rome," a project developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology that uses data from cellphones and other wireless technology to illustrate the city's pulse in real time. The project will debut Sept. 8 during Rome's "Notte Bianca" or white night, an all-night festival of events across the...

Acid Rain Has A Disproportionate Impact On Coastal Waters

The release of sulfur and nitrogen into the atmosphere by power plants and agricultural activities plays a minor role in making the ocean more acidic on a global scale, but the impact is greatly amplified in the shallower waters of the coastal ocean, according to new research by atmospheric and marine chemists.

Diabetes: Expanding Beta-cell Numbers

The underlying cause of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes is that there are insufficient pancreatic beta-cells to control the level of glucose in the blood. Given its potential impact on the treatment of diabetes, deciphering the molecular pathways that control beta-cell proliferation is an area of intensive investigation. In a new study scientists show that the protein Skp2 has a critical role in...

Future Career Path Of Gifted Youth Can Be Predicted By Age 13 By SAT

The future career path and creative direction of gifted youth can be predicted well by their performance on the SAT at age 13, a new study from Vanderbilt University finds. The study offers insights into how best to identify the nation's most talented youth. Overall, the creative potential of the participants was extraordinary. The findings contradict recent reports that the SAT has no predictive...

Low Vitamin D During Pregnancy Linked To Pre-eclampsia

Vitamin D deficiency early in pregnancy is associated with a five-fold increased risk of pre-eclampsia, reports a new study. A complication of pregnancy marked by soaring blood pressure, pre-eclampsia is a leading cause of maternal and fetal illness and death. Pre-eclampsia affects up to 7 percent of first pregnancies, and health-care costs associated with pre-eclampsia are estimated at $7 billion...

Making Gene Therapy Safer: Delivering Genes Via Polymers

In work that could lead to safe and effective techniques for gene therapy, MIT researchers have found a way to fine-tune the ability of biodegradable polymers to deliver genes. Gene therapy, which involves inserting new genes into patients' cells to fight diseases like cancer, holds great promise but has yet to realize its full potential, in part because of safety concerns over the conventional...

Mars Rovers Survive Severe Dust Storms, Ready For Next Objectives

Two months after sky-darkening dust from severe storms nearly killed NASA's Mars exploration rovers, the solar powered robots are awake and ready to continue their mission. Opportunity's planned descent into the giant Victoria Crater was delayed, but now the rover is preparing to drive into the 800-meter-diameter crater (half-mile-diameter) as early as Sept. 11. Spirit, Opportunity's rover twin,...

Newer Antidepressants Led To Less, Not More, Teen Suicides

Contrary to newly mandated FDA black-box warnings, a new study finds antidepressants dramatically lower suicide attempts in youth. Suicide is the third leading cause of death in adolescents in this country, following only unintentional injuries and homicide. In real numbers, about 30,000 young people take their own lives in America each year.

Prions May Activate Retroviruses In Infected Brain Cells

Prion proteins may activate endogenous retroviruses in infected brain cells. Prions – an abbreviation for proteinaceous infectious particles – work as a trigger to a set of diseases of the brain and nervous system, the so-called spongiform encephalopathies. These include BSE in cattle, scrapie in sheep and Creutzfeldt Jakob’s Disease in humans. Prions are structural variants of a...

Understanding Why Infection With HIV-2 Is Not As Bad As HIV-1

There are two distinct, but related, HIV viruses that humans can become infected with -- HIV-1 and HIV-2. Individuals infected with HIV-2 progress to AIDS at a dramatically reduced rate compared with individuals infected with HIV-1; in fact, most individuals infected with HIV-2 die of unrelated causes. It is hoped that understanding why individuals infected with HIV-2 rarely progress to AIDS will...

What The Schizophrenia Risk Gene Does For A Healthy Brain

How the gene that has been pegged as a major risk factor for schizophrenia and other mood disorders that affect millions of Americans contributes to these diseases remains unclear. However, the results of a new study by Hopkins provide a big clue by showing what this gene does in normal adult brains. This gene makes a protein that serves as a sort of musical conductor for newly made nerve cells in...

When Does Being Obese Not Lead To Diabetes? When Mice Lack Osteopontin

Obesity is one of the biggest risk factors for type 2 diabetes. One reason for this is thought to be the chronic inflammation characterized by macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue that accompanies obesity, because it has been linked to the development of insulin resistance (which in turn often leads to type 2 diabetes).

Women's Health Much More At Risk From Sleep Deprivation, Study Suggests

Women's health is much more at risk from sleep deprivation than men's, according to recent research. The researchers found that the those women in the study group who slept less than or equal to 5 hours a night were twice as likely to suffer from hypertension than women who slept for the more recommended seven hours or more a night. The researchers found no difference between men sleeping less...

Zebrafish Provide Insight Into Human Joint Disease

Progressive pseudorheumatoid dysplasia (PPD), which causes joint failure in early adulthood, results from genetic mutations in the WISP3 gene that lead to the generation of nonfunctional WISP3 protein. Understanding why WISP3 deficiency causes PPD has been difficult because mice lacking WISP3 have no apparent symptoms. In a new study, scientists provide insight into the functions of WISP3 by...

Failing Protection Of Africa's National Parks

For years, biologists in Africa have known that large mammals -- including antelopes and their predators -- were disappearing outside reserves. Now a raft of studies show that we have moved beyond this. We are losing species from national parks, bastion of biodiversity conservation. Worryingly, this includes the continent's crown jewels such as Tanzania's Serengeti National Park.