884,980 articles

New telescope project completion in sight

The construction of the Fred Young Submillimeter Telescope (FYST) being developed by CCAT Observatory Inc., an international consortium of universities led by Cornell, is drawing to a close.

Researchers uncover the diversity of viroids and viroid-like agents

A team of researchers from the National Library of Medicine (NLM) and collaborating academic research institutions have developed a computational pipeline to identify and better understand viroids and viroid-like covalently closed circular RNAs (cccRNAs, also referred to simply as circular RNAs). This is a type of single-stranded RNA, which unlike linear RNA, forms a covalently closed, continuous...

Postdocs need raises. But who will foot the bill?

Postdocs—the Ph.D.s who do much of the labor of science—are notoriously underpaid. But the problem has intensified over the past year as postdocs struggle to get by amid soaring inflation and professors report problems recruiting Ph.D. graduates to fill positions. Several institutions and states have recently implemented policies to increase their pay. But these...

Frescoes, in a flash: Researchers create frescoes in a single day

In medieval Europe, before the rise of oil paintings, fresco was a popular religious painting technique. Many artworks across Europe, hundreds of years old, utilize this method and constitute an important part of cultural heritage. Michelangelo's famous Sistine Chapel ceiling and Fra Angelo's Annunciation in Italy are perhaps two of the most well-known examples of frescoes. But how exactly does...

Elucidation of electrolyte decomposition behavior in all-solid-state lithium-sulfur batteries

A research group of the Department of Electrical and Electronic Information Engineering at Toyohashi University of Technology—consisting of Hirotada Gamo, a doctoral course student; Kazuhiro Hikima, assistant professor; and Atsunori Matsuda, professor—has elucidated the decomposition behavior of electrolytes in the cathode composites of all-solid-state lithium-sulfur batteries (ASSLSB).

A new catalyst that transforms carbon dioxide into added-value chemical products

Global warming is an increasingly worrying problem. Although the greenhouse effect is a necessary process to maintain living conditions on Earth, our current societies are increasing the emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere and increasing its temperature by retaining more heat than necessary. Nature is trying to counteract this situation: plants are able to capture energy from sunlight...

Genetic engineering sheds light on ancient evolutionary questions

Cyanobacteria are single-celled organisms that derive energy from light, using photosynthesis to convert atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and liquid water (H2O) into breathable oxygen and the carbon-based molecules like proteins that make up their cells. Cyanobacteria were the first organisms to perform photosynthesis in the history of Earth, and were responsible for flooding the early Earth with...

Recreating the natural light-harvesting nanorings in photosynthetic bacteria

Nearly all the chemical energy available to Earth's lifeforms can be traced back to the sun. This is because light-harvesting (LH) supramolecules (two or more molecules held together by intermolecular forces) enable plants and some types of bacteria (typically at the base of the food chain) to leverage sunlight for driving photosynthesis. For these supramolecules to be effective, they need to have...

Estimating organic carbon stocks of mineral soils in Denmark: Impact of bulk density and content of rock fragments

Soil can store carbon. Therefore, there is also an increasing focus on soil organic carbon content and how to either increase or maintain it. This is because soil can also lose carbon in the form of climate gases from microbial decomposition, in which case soil suddenly contributes to climate change rather than mitigating it. But to maintain or even increase the amount of carbon, farmers need to...

Copying nature to help plants resist viruses

For thousands of years, crops have been shaped by domestication processes. Farmers cross-breed and select new varieties, adapted to constantly changing environments. Although efficient, this process is time consuming. Moreover, the desired trait must be present somewhere within the diversity of the species to be improved.

With rapidly increasing heat and drought, can plants adapt?

At a time when climate change is making many areas of the planet hotter and drier, it's sobering to think that deserts are relatively new biomes that have grown considerably over the past 30 million years. Widespread arid regions, like the deserts that today cover much of western North America, began to emerge only within the past 5 to 7 million years.