809,072 articles

New in Lithosphere: Mars, Iraq, Canada, and the Spanish Pyrenees

New Lithosphere science posted online June 4 2012 includes a study of the Valles Marineris fault zone, Mars, and asks why such a trough system occurs there, when such structures on Earth are mainly associated with plate tectonics. Other papers discuss landslides in the Pyrenees; first evidence of a "missing" Cretaceous arc assemblage in the Iraqi segment of the Zagros orogenic belt; and new...

New technology improves malaria control and vaccine development

A new technique that accurately determines the risk of infants in endemic countries developing clinical malaria could provide a valuable tool for evaluating new malaria prevention strategies and vaccines.The technique could even help to understand how anti-malarial vaccine and treatment strategies act to reduce malaria, say researchers from the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute, Swiss Tropical and...

Not ready to play nice: Online attacks by presidential candidates

As voters increasingly rely on websites of presidential primary candidates for news, they run a risk because candidates' online attacks are not vetted through traditional "watchdog journalists" and other gatekeepers to determine accuracy or fairness, according to a study by Baylor University researchers.

Physicians may not always report brain cancer patients unfit to drive

Ontario doctors are legally required to report patients they consider medically unfit to drive to the Ministry of Transportation - yet they may not be doing it. A new study from Lawson Health Research Institute shows doctors treating patients with brain cancer are unclear about how and when to assess and report a patient's ability to drive.

Physicists close in on a rare particle-decay process

In the biggest result of its kind in more than ten years, physicists have made the most sensitive measurements yet in a decades-long hunt for a hypothetical and rare process involving the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei. If discovered, the researchers say, this process could have profound implications for how scientists understand the fundamental laws of physics and help solve some of the...

PTSD psychotherapy is enhanced with D-cycloserine

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is among the most common, distressing, and disabling medical consequences of combat or other extremely stressful life events. The first-line treatment for PTSD is exposure therapy, a type of behavioral therapy where patients confront their fears in a safe environment. Although it is an effective treatment, many patients still experience symptoms after treatment...

Regional care systems to treat severe heart attacks improve survival rates

North Carolina's coordinated regional systems to rapidly treat severe heart attacks saved lives and are a model for national standards for heart attack care. Quickly diagnosing heart attack patients in the ambulance, then getting them to hospitals that open blocked heart arteries is key to improving and saving lives. Practice guidelines recommend that regional coordination of heart attack care be...

Reign of the giant insects ended with the evolution of birds

Giant insects ruled the prehistoric skies during periods when Earth's atmosphere was rich in oxygen. Then came the birds. After the evolution of birds about 150 million years ago, insects got smaller despite rising oxygen levels, according to a new study by scientists at the University of California, Santa Cruz.

Repelling the drop on top

It would make life a lot easier if the surfaces of window panes, corrosion coatings or microfluidic systems in medical labs could keep themselves free of water and other liquids. A new simulation program can now work out just how such surfaces have to look for a variety of applications.

Scientists identify mechanism for regulating plant oil production

Scientists at the US Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory have identified key elements in the biochemical mechanism plants use to limit the production of fatty acids. The results suggest ways scientists might target those biochemical pathways to increase the production of plant oils as a renewable resource for biofuels and industrial processes.

Shape-shifting shell

Scientists at EMBL Heidelberg have for the first time uncovered the structure of the shell that surrounds the genetic material of retroviruses such as HIV. The study, published online today in Nature, provides information on a part of the virus that may be a potential future drug target.

Study examines comparative effectiveness of rhythm control vs. rate control drug treatment

An observational study that examined the comparative effectiveness of rhythm control vs. rate control drug treatment on mortality in patients with atrial fibrillation (a rapid, irregular heart beat) suggests there was little difference in mortality within four years of treatment, but rhythm control may be associated with more effective long-term outcomes, according to a report published online...

Study finds high risk of GI cancers among childhood cancer survivors

Survivors of childhood cancers are at an increased risk of another battle with cancer later in life, according to new research published online June 5 by the Annals of Internal Medicine. In the largest study to date of risk for gastrointestinal cancers among people first diagnosed with cancer before the age of 21, researchers found that childhood cancer survivors develop these malignancies at a...

System improves automated monitoring of security cameras

Police and security teams need to know immediately when someone enters a prohibited area. A network of surveillance cameras is typically used, but these can generate too many images for human eyes to analyze. Now, a system being developed by Christopher Amato, a postdoc at MIT's CSAIL, can perform this analysis more accurately and faster than a human camera operator.