802,939 articles

Catheter Angiography May Be An Unnecessary Follow-up To CT Angiography

Even in challenging cases, CT angiography offers an accurate and rapid diagnosis for blunt trauma victims who may have aortic or great vessel injury negating the need for more invasive procedures, according to a recent study. CTA is commonly used to rule out blunt aortic and intrathoracic great vessel injuries, but sometimes the results are indeterminate, according to the lead author of the study.

Causes And Treatments For Breast Growth In Men

Gynecomastia, the benign enlargement of male breast tissue, is a common occurrence in adolescents as well as in middle-aged and older men. While there are several reasons why men develop breast tissue, it is usually not a health concern, often resolves on its own and is generally treatable, according to a recent article. Breast enlargement is surprisingly common in men, affecting 40 to 50 percent...

Cell-surface Sugar Defects May Trigger Nerve Damage In Multiple Sclerosis Patients

Defects on cell-surface sugars may promote the short-term inflammation and long-term neurodegeneration that occurs in the central nervous system of multiple sclerosis patients, according to a new article. The findings also suggest that a dietary supplement similar to glucosamine may be useful as an oral therapy to correct these defects and to treat both the short-term and the long-term symptoms of...

Controlling For Size May Also Prevent Cancer

Scientists discovered that a chemical chain reaction that controls organ size in animals ranging from insects to humans could mean the difference between normal growth and cancer. The study describes how organs can grow uncontrollably huge and become cancerous when this chain reaction is perturbed.

Dealing With Threatening Space Rocks

Every now and then a space rock hits the world's media -- sometimes almost literally. Threatening asteroids that zoom past the Earth, fireballs in the sky seen by hundreds of people and mysterious craters which may have been caused by impacting meteorites; all make ESA's planned mission Don Quijote look increasingly timely.

Deep Earth Model Challenged By New Experiment

In the first experiments able to mimic the crushing, searing conditions found in Earth's lower mantle, and simultaneously probe telltale properties of iron, scientists have discovered that material there behaves very differently than predicted by models. The research also points to the likelihood of a new zone deep in the Earth.

Deep-sea Scientific Drilling Program To Study Volatile Earthquake Zone Launched

Scientists begin exploring the origins of earthquakes at their source with the launch of the Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment. On Sept. 21, the Japanese drilling vessel Chikyu departs from Shingu Port with scientists aboard, ready to log, drill, sample and install monitoring instrumentation in one of the most active earthquake zones on Earth. Situated off Japan's southwest coast, the...

Eat Less To Live Longer: Calorie Restriction Linked To Long Healthy Lives

For nearly 70 years scientists have known that caloric restriction prolongs life. In everything from yeast to primates, a significant decrease in calories can extend lifespan by as much as one-third. But getting under the hood of the molecular machinery that drives this longevity has remained elusive. Researchers have now discovered two genes in mammalian cells that act as gatekeepers for cellular...

Flu Virus Trots Globe During Off Season, Mixes With Other Viral Strains

The influenza A virus does not lie dormant during summer but migrates globally and mixes with other viral strains before returning to the Northern Hemisphere as a genetically different virus, according to biologists who say the finding settles a key debate on what the virus does during the summer off season when it is not infecting people.

Friends Make Dates Safe, Study Suggests

The US tops global rankings for rates of teenage pregnancy by a considerable margin, but what is the best way to tackle this problem? Numerous initiatives -- from abstinence campaigns to improved sex education -- encourage teenagers to take preventative measures, but a new study suggests that more work should be done among friendship groups. A teenage girl's friends may help to keep her from harm...

Genetic Variation Affects Smoking Cessation Treatment

Mark Twain boasted that it was easy to quit smoking because he did it every day. We now may have the beginnings of understanding why some people find it so difficult to stop smoking even when they are in treatment for this problem. A new study reports that genetic variation in a particular enzyme affects the success rates of treatment with bupropion, an antismoking drug.

Heat Shock Proteins Are Co-opted For Cancer

The HSF1 transcription factor is the master regulator of cells' protective "heat-shock" response -- a complex defense system that kicks in when an organism is exposed to increased temperature, infection, toxins or other stresses. Researchers have found evidence that HSFI also plays a role in enabling normal cells to turn into cancer cells -- an understanding that could be the basis for new...

Insights About Mars Water And Climate From NASA Orbiter

NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter is examining several features on Mars that address the role of water at different times in Martian history. Features examined with the orbiter's advanced instruments include material deposited in two gullies within the past eight years, polar ice layers formed in the recent geologic past, and signs of water released by large impacts when Mars was older.

Job's Syndrome Cause Identified

The rare immunodeficiency disorder known as Job's syndrome is caused by a specific genetic mutation that both overstimulates and understimulates the human immune system, leading to harmful bacterial and fungal infections and the physical features characteristic of the syndrome, according to two independent groups of scientists.

Key To Longer Life (in Flies) Lies In Just 14 Brain Cells

Fruit flies live significantly longer when the activity of the protein p53 is reduced in just 14 insulin-producing cells in their brains, new research shows. The results put scientists one step closer to understanding caloric restriction, a biochemical process proven to slow aging.

Making Bicycles That Balance Better

For nearly 150 years, scientists have been baffled by the bicycle. How is it possible that a moving bicycle can, all by itself, be so stable? Researchers believe they have now found the ultimate model of the bicycle.

Microwaves Can Probe Fat Content In Supermarket Food

Microwaves used for zapping instant meals can also be used to determine the fat and salt content of supermarket food, according to new research. The aim of the project is to develop a new fast and non-invasive method of predicting the fat content in meat products. This type of constant real-time monitoring during the production process could help reduce waste, maximise yield, reduce laboratory...

New Light Shed On The 'Hobbit'

Researchers have completed a new study on Homo floresiensis, commonly referred to as the "hobbit," a 3-foot-tall, 18,000-year-old hominin skeleton, discovered four years ago on the Indonesian island of Flores. This study offers one of the most striking confirmations of the original interpretation of the hobbit as an island remnant of one of the oldest human migrations to Asia.

New Strategy To Create Genetically-modified Animals Developed

A new strategy for genetic modification of large animals by employing a virus that transfers genetic modifications to male reproductive cells, which passes naturally to offspring has been developed. Scientists introduced adeno-associated virus to germline stem cells in goats and mice. AAV stably transduced male germ line stem cells and led to transgene transmission through the male germ line.