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152,433 articles from ScienceDaily

'Safety in numbers' tactic keeps Pacific salmon safe from predators

A new study that leverages historical data has found unique support for a 'safety in numbers' strategy, where Pacific salmon living in larger groups have a lower risk of being eaten by predators. But for some salmon species, schooling comes at the cost of competition for food, and those fish may trade safety for a meal.

Enzyme of bacterial origin promoted the evolution of longhorned beetles

Larvae of longhorned beetles develop primarily in woody tissue, which is difficult for most organisms to digest. However, longhorned beetle larvae possess special enzymes to break down the various components of the plant cell wall. Researchers have now taken a closer look at a group of digestive enzymes found only in this beetle family. They resurrected the primordial enzymes, which first appeared...

Underground carnivore: the first species of pitcher plant to dine on subterranean prey

A remarkable new species of carnivorous plant was discovered in a remote part of Borneo. It is the first pitcher plant known to produce functional underground traps, and the first for which capture of subterranean prey has been observed. While the traps themselves are often a rich maroon colour, they are produced on shoots that are entirely white, owing to their lack of chlorophyll.

Being mindful can improve your interactions with co-workers, new study finds

Although mindfulness originates within an individual, a new study has found the benefits do not end with this person. The real payoffs emerge when an individual's mindfulness is translated into mindful interactions and relationships. Such interactions -- infused with intentionality, compassion and presence -- can bring about more harmonious and healthy organizations.

Climate change is making plants more vulnerable to disease. New research could help them fight back

When heat waves hit, they don't just take a toll on people -- plants suffer too. That's because when temperatures rise, certain plant defenses don't work as well, leaving them more susceptible to attacks from pathogens and pests. Scientists say they have identified a specific protein in plant cells that explains why immunity falters as the mercury rises. They've also figured out a way to bolster...

Destruction and recovery of kelp forests driven by changes in sea urchin behavior

A dramatic outbreak of kelp-eating sea urchins along the Central Coast of California in 2014, leading to a significant reduction in the region's kelp forests, was driven primarily by the emergence of sea urchins from their hiding places rather than an increase in the urchin population. In subsequent years, sea urchin movements enabled kelp forest recovery at sites that had been denuded 'urchin...

RNA modifications in mitochondria promote invasive spread of cancer

Mitochondria are the power plants of cells, and they contain their own genetic material and RNA molecules. Scientists have now discovered that certain modifications in mitochondrial RNA boost the invasive spread of cancer cells by supporting protein synthesis in mitochondria. They have established that a specific gene expression signature correlating with high levels of mitochondrial RNA...

Scientists discover mechanism controlling spread of pancreatic cancer

Scientists have shown it is possible to reverse a key process that allows pancreatic cancer cells to grow and spread around the body. These findings show that a protein called GREM1 is key to regulating the type of cells found in pancreatic cancer -- and manipulating its levels can both fuel and reverse the ability of these cells to change into a more aggressive subtype. Researchers hope, in the...

How flies lay off the extra salty snacks

Fruit flies are known for their sweet tooth, but new research also indicates they may offer hints to how animals sense -- and avoid -- high concentrations of salt. Using mutant fruit flies, zoologists have identified a new high-salt receptor on the tongue of Drosophila -- receptor IR7c. IR7c governs the insects' ability to detect dangerously high concentrations of salt, typically over 0.25 moles...

New single-mode semiconductor laser delivers power with scalability

Engineers have created a new type of semiconductor laser that accomplishes an elusive goal in the field of optics: the ability to maintain a single mode of emitted light while maintaining the ability to scale up in size and power. It is an achievement that means size does not have to come at the expense of coherence, enabling lasers to be more powerful and to cover longer distances for many...