Microenvironment mapping via Dexter energy transfer on immune cells

Many disease pathologies can be understood through the elucidation of localized biomolecular networks, or microenvironments. To this end, enzymatic proximity labeling platforms are broadly applied for mapping the wider spatial relationships in subcellular architectures. However, technologies that can map microenvironments with higher precision have long been sought. Here, we describe a microenvironment-mapping platform that exploits photocatalytic carbene generation to selectively identify protein-protein interactions on cell membranes, an approach we term MicroMap (μMap). By using a photocatalyst-antibody conjugate to spatially localize carbene generation, we demonstrate selective labeling of antibody binding targets and their microenvironment protein neighbors. This technique identified the constituent proteins of the programmed-death ligand 1 (PD-L1) microenvironment in live lymphocytes and selectively labeled within an immunosynaptic junction.