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15,144 articles from ScienceNOW

A plants diet, surviving in a variable nutrient environment

As primary producers, plants rely on a large aboveground surface area to collect carbon dioxide and sunlight and a large underground surface area to collect the water and mineral nutrients needed to support their growth and development. Accessibility of the essential nutrients nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in the soil is affected by many factors that create a variable spatiotemporal landscape of...

A slip law for glaciers on deformable beds

Slip of marine-terminating ice streams over beds of deformable till is responsible for most of the contribution of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet to sea level rise. Flow models of the ice sheet and till-bedded glaciers elsewhere require a law that relates slip resistance, slip velocity, and water pressure at the bed. We present results of experiments in which pressurized ice at its melting...

An artificial impact on the asteroid (162173) Ryugu formed a crater in the gravity-dominated regime

The Hayabusa2 spacecraft investigated the small asteroid Ryugu, which has a rubble-pile structure. We describe an impact experiment on Ryugu using Hayabusa2’s Small Carry-on Impactor. The impact produced an artificial crater with a diameter >10 meters, which has a semicircular shape, an elevated rim, and a central pit. Images of the impact and resulting ejecta were recorded by the...

Contemporaneity of Australopithecus, Paranthropus, and early Homo erectus in South Africa

Understanding the extinction of Australopithecus and origins of Paranthropus and Homo in South Africa has been hampered by the perceived complex geological context of hominin fossils, poor chronological resolution, and a lack of well-preserved early Homo specimens. We describe, date, and contextualize the discovery of two hominin crania from Drimolen Main Quarry in South Africa. At ~2.04 million...

Critical differences in 3D atomic structure of individual ligand-protected nanocrystals in solution

Precise three-dimensional (3D) atomic structure determination of individual nanocrystals is a prerequisite for understanding and predicting their physical properties. Nanocrystals from the same synthesis batch display what are often presumed to be small but possibly important differences in size, lattice distortions, and defects, which can only be understood by structural characterization with...

Cysteine depletion induces pancreatic tumor ferroptosis in mice

Ferroptosis is a form of cell death that results from the catastrophic accumulation of lipid reactive oxygen species (ROS). Oncogenic signaling elevates lipid ROS production in many tumor types and is counteracted by metabolites that are derived from the amino acid cysteine. In this work, we show that the import of oxidized cysteine (cystine) via system xC– is a critical dependency of...

De novo design of protein logic gates

The design of modular protein logic for regulating protein function at the posttranscriptional level is a challenge for synthetic biology. Here, we describe the design of two-input AND, OR, NAND, NOR, XNOR, and NOT gates built from de novo–designed proteins. These gates regulate the association of arbitrary protein units ranging from split enzymes to transcriptional machinery in vitro, in...

Endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation regulates mitochondrial dynamics in brown adipocytes

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) engages mitochondria at specialized ER domains known as mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs). Here, we used three-dimensional high-resolution imaging to investigate the formation of pleomorphic "megamitochondria" with altered MAMs in brown adipocytes lacking the Sel1L-Hrd1 protein complex of ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD). Mice with ERAD deficiency in...

Extreme tensile strain states in La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 membranes

A defining feature of emergent phenomena in complex oxides is the competition and cooperation between ground states. In manganites, the balance between metallic and insulating phases can be tuned by the lattice; extending the range of lattice control would enhance the ability to access other phases. We stabilized uniform extreme tensile strain in nanoscale La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 membranes, exceeding 8%...

Facial expressions of emotion states and their neuronal correlates in mice

Understanding the neurobiological underpinnings of emotion relies on objective readouts of the emotional state of an individual, which remains a major challenge especially in animal models. We found that mice exhibit stereotyped facial expressions in response to emotionally salient events, as well as upon targeted manipulations in emotion-relevant neuronal circuits. Facial expressions were...