Scientists explain why meridional heat transport is underestimated

The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is a phenomenon responsible for transporting ocean heat northward through the Atlantic Ocean. This process significantly influences the Arctic and North Atlantic oceanic climate and the Eurasian continental climate. The corresponding cross-equatorial northward heat transport also determines the location of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), affecting global energy and rainfall distribution. Changes in ocean net surface heat flux play an important role in modulating the variability of the AMOC and hence the regional and global climate. However, the spread of simulated surface heat fluxes is still large and AMOC underestimation is common, due to poorly represented dynamical processes involving multi-scale interactions within the model simulations.