142 articles from MONDAY 5.6.2023

Pond emission measurements improve climate predictions

There could be billions of shallow lakes and ponds on Earth, though lack of mapping systems makes it hard to know just how many exist. Together, they emit significant amounts of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, but emissions from these systems vary considerably and are not well understood.

Big data astronomy: Using statistics in a new way to decipher the universe

The digital age has been a tremendous boon to the fields of both statistics and astronomy. However, according to Dr. Max Bonamente, a professor of physics and astronomy at The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH), most astronomers are not sufficiently trained to realize the substantial benefits to be gained by putting these disciplines together. He and his colleagues are working to change all...

New strategy can harvest chemical information on rare isotopes with a fraction of the material

Studying radioactive materials is very difficult due to the potential health risks they pose to scientists. Expense is also a major barrier, with some radioisotopes costing more than $10,000 per microgram (or $10 billion per gram). Some radioisotopes cannot be produced in sufficient quantities, making them difficult to study in detail with current techniques. Scientists have recently developed a...

How Sierra Nevada snowpack confounds Central Valley groundwater readings

Billions of tons of snow piled atop the Sierra Nevada Mountains can cause parts of the Central Valley, just west of the range, to sink—muddling groundwater assessments that take sinking as a sign of depleted aquifers. A recent Stanford University study is now offering a way to account for this heavy mountain snowpack and more accurately gauge groundwater levels.

Study: Tools to assess crime risk for young cohorts are likely to fail over time if they ignore social change

Risk assessment instruments (RAIs) are widely used to inform high-stakes decision-making in the criminal justice system and other areas, such as health care and child welfare. These tools typically assume a relation between predictors and outcomes that does not vary with time. But because societies change, this assumption may not hold in all settings, generating what a new study calls cohort...

Reflecting on 20 years of progress in interfacial sciences and engineering

Interfacial reactions happen at the boundary where materials in different phases, for example a solid and a liquid, meet each other. These reactions drive all elemental cycling on Earth and play pivotal roles in human activities such as agriculture, water purification, energy production and storage, environmental contaminant remediation, and nuclear waste repository management.

Sanctions on Russia's businesses haven't worked, says study

Following Russia's invasion of Ukraine in 2022, Western governments implemented a suite of sanctions on Russian businesses, escalating the sanctions they implemented following Russia's annexation of Crimea in 2014. The goal in both cases was to inflict enough pain on Russian elites that they would pressure Vladimir Putin to reverse course and end the conflict.

'Sooty bark disease,' harmful for maples and humans, can be monitored by pollen sampling stations

Especially after the last few COVID-affected years, nobody doubts that emerging infectious diseases can threaten the whole world. But humans are not the only ones at risk. With intensive global trade, many tree parasites are accidently introduced to Europe in packaging or directly on goods. Traveling in wood, on plants or in the soil of their pots, they can remain undetected for a long time.

A simple solution for nuclear matter in two dimensions

Understanding the behavior of nuclear matter—including the quarks and gluons that make up the protons and neutrons of atomic nuclei—is extremely complicated. This is particularly true in our world, which is three dimensional. Mathematical techniques from condensed matter physics that consider interactions in just one spatial dimension (plus time) greatly simplify the challenge.

Muscle fibers: An unexpected organization revealed in Mediterranean fish

Researchers at the University of Liège, Eric Parmentier and Marc Thiry have just made the unexpected discovery of a novel organization of muscle fibers in Parophidion vassali, a fish that lives in the Mediterranean Sea and, like many fish, uses specialized muscles to produce sounds. This is an important discovery that could well change our understanding of muscle contraction.

Cell-membrane coated nanoparticles light up two cancer biomarkers at once to give more complete picture of tumor

Cancer surgeons may soon have a more complete view of tumors during surgery, thanks to new imaging agents that can illuminate multiple biomarkers at once, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign researchers report. The fluorescent nanoparticles, wrapped in the membranes of red blood cells, target tumors better than current clinically approved dyes and can emit two distinct signals in response to...

Revised report on impact of Covid lockdowns leaves unanswered questions

Book based on May 2022 review ‘did lockdowns work?’ examines whether legally enforced interventions prevented deathsThe overwhelming majority of academic studies have one chance to make a splash. Once that moment has passed – which tends to be when the paper is published – the spotlight moves on in the relentless search for new material.But not all studies adhere to that trend. Some return...