An optoelectronic thermometer based on microscale infrared-to-visible conversion devices

High-accuracy spatially and temporally resolved temperature sensing is critical and has broad applications in diverse fields, such as industrial manufacturing, environmental protection, and healthcare monitoring. Optical-based sensors offer attractive solutions for temperature monitoring in biomedical diagnostics, owing to their advantages of remote detection, minimal intrusion, immunity to electromagnetic interference, and high resolution. These optical sensing modalities can be based on luminous intensity, wavelength, peak width, and/or decay lifetime. The upconversion mechanism mitigates the biological autofluorescence, facilitates tissue penetration, and yields conveniently-visualized and easily-captured visible light signals, presenting a more suitable method for sensing in biological systems