219 articles from WEDNESDAY 3.4.2024

Satellite signals can measure a forest’s moisture—and its ability to survive

The same radio signals that enable your smartphone to pinpoint your location may also reveal how much water a forest holds within its foliage. By measuring how much GPS satellite signals weakened as they passed through a forest canopy, researchers were able to estimate the canopy’s water content. Experts say the technique, which uses a simple setup of two GPS receivers, could provide a...

Research team provides water planning tool with future forecasts up to 2055

In view of demographic changes and advancing climate change, Austria is already experiencing increasingly tense water supply situations, which will only increase in the future. Until now, however, conventional planning systems have not been able to provide a step-by-step forecast of the performance of water supply systems.

China's orchid renaissance: Bridging ancient traditions and modern science

In China, a country hosting over 1,700 of the world's roughly 30,000 orchid species, the orchid industry has witnessed substantial growth fueled by advancements in science and technology. The journal Ornamental Plant Research has recently published a review article titled "The China orchid industry: past and future perspectives."

'Tug of war' tactic enhances chemical separations for critical materials

Lanthanide elements are important for clean energy and other applications. To use them, industry must separate mixed lanthanide sources into individual elements using costly, time-consuming, and waste-generating procedures. An efficient new method can be tailored to select specific lanthanides. The technique combines two substances that do not mix and that prefer different types of lanthanides....

NASA's Webb probes an extreme starburst galaxy

A team of astronomers has used NASA's James Webb Space Telescope to survey the starburst galaxy Messier 82 (M82). Located 12 million light-years away in the constellation Ursa Major, this galaxy is relatively compact in size but hosts a frenzy of star formation activity. For comparison, M82 is sprouting new stars 10 times faster than the Milky Way galaxy.

New tools reveal how genes work and cells organize

Researchers have discovered how certain proteins can attach to special structures in RNA, called G-quadruplexes. Additionally, they have developed computational tools capable of predicting these protein-RNA interactions. The newfound ability to predict these interactions can help future work in understanding molecular pathways in the cell and pave the way for developing drugs targeting these RNA...

Large language models respond differently based on user's motivation

A new study reveals how large language models (LLMs) respond to different motivational states. In their evaluation of three LLM-based generative conversational agents (GAs)--ChatGPT, Google Bard, and Llama 2, scientists found that while GAs are able to identify users' motivation states and provide relevant information when individuals have established goals, they are less likely to provide...

Researchers discover 'neutronic molecules'

Researchers have discovered 'neutronic' molecules, in which neutrons can be made to cling to quantum dots, held just by the strong force. The finding may lead to new tools for probing material properties at the quantum level and exploring new kinds of quantum information processing devices.

Researchers map how the brain regulates emotions

A new study is among the first of its kind to separate activity relating to emotion generation from emotion regulation in the human brain. The findings provide new insights that could help inform therapeutic treatments regarding mental health and drug addiction.