158 articles from TUESDAY 2.4.2024

‘Now we know where the dead went.’ Did grave robbers plunder battlefields?

In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, a succession of wars ravaged Europe. Massive armies squared off and massacred each other using cannon and rifle fire and mass cavalry charges that claimed tens of thousands of casualties in hours. At the 1815 Battle of Waterloo, Napoleon Bonaparte’s final battle, more than 10,000 men and as many horses were killed in a single day. Yet today,...

A new estimate of US soil organic carbon to improve Earth system models

Soil contains about twice as much carbon as the atmosphere and plants combined. It is a major carbon sink, capable of absorbing more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere than it releases. Management of soil carbon is key in efforts to mitigate climate change, in addition to being vital to soil health and agricultural productivity.

Researchers develop early horse osteoarthritis detection tool

Researchers introduced a straightforward questionnaire to help horse owners identify and monitor signs of osteoarthritis pain in their equine companions. This initiative aims to facilitate earlier and more effective treatment, ultimately enhancing the quality of life for horses.

Unlocking membrane-based He/H₂ separation with AI

Technological advancement and data proliferation have deemed artificial intelligence (AI)-driven innovation as a growth opportunity for the development of breakthrough materials for special applications, especially in the field of gas separation. One of the main challenges associated with this process is the extremely close kinetic diameters of the two gas molecules, resulting in low membrane...

Understanding flow and sound through large-scale computations

In a research collaboration between the group of Professor Hiroshi Yokoyama of the Department of Mechanical Engineering and KOBE STEEL, LTD., flow, and acoustic fields in an expanding pipe with orifice plates were studied using a computational methodology developed by Prof. Yokoyama's group. The flow fields, including the various vortical structures and generated acoustic fields, were explained...

New research uses coaxial 'dish' antenna to scan for dark matter

One of the great mysteries of modern science is dark matter. We know dark matter exists thanks to its effects on other objects in the cosmos, but we have never been able to directly see it. And it's no minor thing—currently, scientists think it makes up about 85% of all the mass in the universe.

Scientists' urgent call: End destruction and forge a just, sustainable future

An international team of scientists has published a study in PNAS Nexus, emphasizing the urgent need to align political will, economic resources, and societal values to ensure a more sustainable and equitable world. Led by University of Hawai'i at Mānoa researchers, the 18 authors combine their expertise in Earth and ocean sciences, politics, law, public health, renewable energy, geography,...

Researchers synthesize new compounds within living cells using light

Plants harness chlorophyll to capture sunlight and kickstart photosynthesis, a crucial process on our planet that converts luminous energy into chemical fuel while producing oxygen. This pivotal chemical energy is subsequently utilized by plants, algae, and select bacteria to metabolize carbon dioxide and water into sugars.

Companies ignoring climate risks get punished by markets, new study reveals

A pioneering study from the University of Florida has quantified corporations' exposure to climate change risks like hurricanes, wildfires, and climate-related regulations and the extent to which climate risks are priced into their market valuations. The research also exposes a costly divide—companies that proactively manage climate risks fare much better than those that ignore the threats.

AI makes smarter use of seaweed and kelp

Seaweed and kelp are eaten by both humans and domestic animals all over the world. Several species are used in everything from cosmetics and food additives to fertilizers and medicines.

Researchers publish first-of-its-kind database for uranium minerals

Nuclear nonproliferation scientists at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have published the Compendium of Uranium Raman and Infrared Experimental Spectra, or CURIES, a public database and analysis of structure-spectral relationships for uranium minerals. This first-of-its-kind dataset and corresponding analysis fill a key gap in the existing body of knowledge for...

That starry night sky? It's full of eclipses

Our star, the sun, on occasion joins forces with the moon to offer us Earthlings a spectacular solar eclipse—like the one that will be visible to parts of the United States, Mexico, and Canada on April 8.