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166,312 articles from EurekAlert

Ancient human footprints in Saudi Arabia give glimpse of Arabian ecology 120000 years ago

Using high resolution paleoecological information obtained from fossilized footprints, a new study published in Science Advances presents ~120 thousand-year-old human and animal footprints from an ancient lake bed in northern Arabia. These findings represent the earliest evidence for humans in this part of the world and show that human and animal movements and landscape use were closely linked.

Private health insurers paid hospitals 247% of what medicare would

While recent hospital price transparency initiatives have increased information about procedure-level prices available to patients, employers who pay for most private insurance have little usable information about the prices negotiated on their behalf. A new study based on data from more than half the nation's hospitals finds that prices paid to hospitals nationally during 2018 by privately...


'Cellular compass' guides stem cell division in plants

Biologists observing the formation of leaves noticed the nuclei moved in bewildering ways. Further investigation uncovered proteins that act as compasses and motors, guiding the divisions of individual cells to create the overall pattern of the leaf.

0.5°C of additional warming has a huge effect on global aridity

In a simulation study, UTokyo researchers showed that limiting global warming to 1.5°C rather than 2°C will mitigate aridification in some regions of the world including the Mediterranean, western Europe, and southern Africa. However, Australia and some parts of Asia were simulated to become wetter rather than drier at both 1.5°C and 2°C of warming. These findings reveal the importance...

A direct link between smoking and fatal brain haemorrhage demonstrated by a Finnish study

According to a recently published study of Finnish twins, smoking most likely causes a significant share of all cases of subarachnoid haemorrhage, the most fatal type of cerebrovascular disturbances. In the study, smoking was identified as the explanation as to why only one twin in pairs of twins develops a fatal brain haemorrhage. The finding is the first proof of an actual causality between...

A scientific first: How psychedelics bind to key brain cell receptor

For the first time, scientists at UNC-Chapel Hill and Stanford solved the high-resolution structure of these compounds when they are actively bound to the 5-HT2A serotonin receptor on the surface of brain cells. This discovery is already leading to the exploration of more precise compounds that could eliminate hallucinations but still have strong therapeutic effects. Psilocybin - the psychedelic...

Algorithms uncover cancers' hidden genetic losses and gains

Limitations in DNA sequencing technology make it difficult to detect some major mutations often linked to cancer, such as the loss or duplication of parts of chromosomes. Now, methods developed by Princeton computer scientists will allow researchers to more accurately identify these mutations in cancerous tissue, yielding a clearer picture of the evolution and spread of tumors than was previously...

Analysis of COVID-19 publications identifies research gaps

Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, scientific and medical journals have published over 100,000 studies on SARS-CoV-2. But according to data scientists who created a machine-learning tool to analyze the deluge of publications, basic lab-based studies on the microbiology of the virus, including research on its pathogenesis and mechanisms of viral transmission, are lacking. Their analysis...

Biomarker predicts who will have severe COVID-19

KAIST researchers have identified key markers that could help pinpoint patients who are bound to get a severe reaction to COVID-19 infection. This would help doctors provide the right treatments at the right time, potentially saving lives. The findings were published in the journal Frontiers in Immunology on August 28.

Chaotic "Lévy walks" are a good strategy for animals

A paper published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science (PNAS) explains the advantage that animals have of using a specific type of chaotic type of movement called a "Lévy walk," and how this type of behavior emerges. Using computer modeling, the author shows that this type of movement can allow animals to make flexible decisions between "exploitation" and "exploring" in an...

Climate change impacts astronomical observations

Already, climate change is having an impact on the conditions of space observation at the Very Large Telescope in the Atacama Desert. In future, new telescopes will have to be adapted to the expected changes, a study in 'Nature Astronomy' finds.