803,879 articles

Collaborative research could help fine-tune the production of antimalarials, chemo drugs

Much of common pharmaceutical development today is the product of laborious cycles of tweaking and optimization. In each drug, a carefully concocted formula of natural and synthetic enzymes and ingredients works together to catalyze a desired reaction. But in early development, much of the process is spent determining what quantities of each enzyme to use to ensure a reaction occurs at a specific...

Warming seas might also look less colorful to some fish. Here's why that matters.

When marine biologist Eleanor Caves of the University of Exeter thinks back to her first scuba dives, one of the first things she recalls noticing is that colors seem off underwater. The vivid reds, oranges, purples and yellows she was used to seeing in the sunlit waters near the surface look increasingly dim and drab with depth, and before long the whole ocean loses most of its rainbow leaving...

Why climate change is driving some to skip having kids

When deciding whether to have children, there are many factors to consider: finances, support systems, personal values. For a growing number of people, climate change is also being added to the list of considerations, says a University of Arizona researcher.

Host, management, or microbial traits: Which is dominant in plant microbiome assemblage?

We've all heard the news stories of how what you eat can affect your microbiome. Changing your diet can shift your unique microbial fingerprint. This shift can cause a dramatic effect on your health. But what about the microbiome of the plants you eat? Scientists are beginning to see how shifts in plant microbiomes also impact plant health. Unlocking the factors in plant microbial assemblage can...

California's worst wildfires are helping improve air quality prediction

UC Riverside engineers are developing methods to estimate the impact of California's destructive wildfires on air quality in neighborhoods affected by the smoke from these fires. Their research, funded by NASA and the results published in Atmospheric Pollution Research, fills in the gaps in current methods by providing air quality information at the neighborhood scales required by public health...

Antibiotics protect apples from fire blight, but do they destroy the native microbiome?

Like humans, certain plants are treated with antibiotics to ward off pathogens and protect the host. Saving millions, antibiotics are one of the 20th century's greatest scientific discoveries, but repeated use and misuse of these life-saving microbial products can disrupt the human microbiome and can have severe effects on an individual's health. Overuse has led to several microbes developing...

What leads young women to disclose abuse in their first relationships?

Women who experience partner violence at a young age don't always show physical signs of abuse and don't always disclose—or recognize—the dangerous position they're in. A new study from Michigan State University is one of the first to examine multiple factors that influence young women's disclosure of partner violence that occurred during their first relationships, when they were just under 15...

Right to food strategy could eliminate food waste on farms

A national strategy to ensure that families have access to food could revolutionize Canada's farms, according to a new study from Simon Fraser University's Food Systems Lab. The study proposes implementing a "right to food" framework that would support the needed funding, infrastructure, and stability that can reduce losses of edible food at the farm, while creating better access to local foods...

Lighting it up: Fast material manipulation through a laser

Researchers from the Physical Chemistry Department of the Fritz Haber Institute and the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter in Hamburg have found out that ultrafast switches in material properties can be prompted by laser pulses—and why. This knowledge may enable new transistor concepts.

Aerial photos uncover an invisible fault in Chinese city

Decades-old aerial photos of Yudong District, Datong City in Shanxi Province, Northern China have helped researchers in their search for a fault hidden underneath the city's buildings and cement roads, researchers said at the Seismological Society of America (SSA)'s 2021 Annual Meeting.

NASA’s Perseverance Mars Rover Extracts First Oxygen from Red Planet

Portal origin URL: NASA’s Perseverance Mars Rover Extracts First Oxygen from Red PlanetPortal origin nid: 470350Published: Wednesday, April 21, 2021 - 14:26Featured (stick to top of list): noPortal text teaser: The growing list of “firsts” for Perseverance, NASA’s newest six-wheeled robot on the Martian surface, includes converting some of the Red Planet’s thin,...

Cracking the code of the Dead Sea Scrolls

The Dead Sea Scrolls, discovered some 70 years ago, are famous for containing the oldest manuscripts of the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) and many hitherto unknown ancient Jewish texts. But the individual people behind the scrolls have eluded scientists, because the scribes are anonymous. Now, by combining the sciences and the humanities, University of Groningen researchers have cracked the code,...

Using floodwaters to weather droughts

Floodwaters are not what most people consider a blessing. But they could help remedy California's increasingly parched groundwater systems, according to a new Stanford-led study. The research, published in Science Advances, develops a framework to calculate future floodwater volumes under a changing climate and identifies areas where investments in California's aging water infrastructure could...

New cognitive bias affecting evaluation processes: The 'generosity-erosion effect'

Researchers at the University of Barcelona, together with researchers from the University of Zurich (Switzerland) and Brown University (United States), have analyzed more than 10,000 evaluations that were carried out to candidates who wish to hold a public teaching position in Catalonia. The objective was to study how the decision by the committee of evaluators is affected by the fact that each...

Air pollution data in five Chinese cities differs for local VS US monitoring stations

A new analysis of air pollution data from five large Chinese cities has found statistically significant differences between data from monitoring stations run by local governments and data from stations run by U.S. embassies and consulates. Jesse Turiel of the Harvard University John F. Kennedy School of Government and Robert Kaufmann of Boston University present these findings in the open-access...

AI algorithms can influence people's voting and dating decisions in experiments

In a new series of experiments, artificial intelligence (A.I.) algorithms were able to influence people's preferences for fictitious political candidates or potential romantic partners, depending on whether recommendations were explicit or covert. Ujué Agudo and Helena Matute of Universidad de Deusto in Bilbao, Spain, present these findings in the open-access journal PLOS ONE on April 21, 2021.

Scientists find carbon-rich liquid water in ancient meteorite

Water is abundant in the solar system. Even beyond Earth, scientists have detected ice on the moon, in Saturn's rings and in comets, liquid water on Mars and under the surface of Saturn's moon Enceladus, and traces of water vapor in the scorching atmosphere of Venus. Studies have shown that water played an important role in the early evolution and formation of the solar system. To learn more about...

This spit test promises to tell couples their risk of passing on common diseases

A new startup called Orchid is offering the chance for couples planning a pregnancy to learn their odds of passing on risks for common conditions like Alzheimer’s, heart disease, type 1 and 2 diabetes, schizophrenia, and certain cancers to their future child. Existing pre-conception tests, which are widely available, can tell parents whether their children could have certain inherited...

SARS-CoV-2: Infection induces antibodies capable of killing infected cells regardless of disease severity

Researchers demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 infection induces polyfunctional antibodies. Beyond neutralization, these antibodies can activate NK cells or the complement system, leading to the destruction of infected cells. Polyfunctional antibodies were found in all individuals (symptomatic and asymptomatic). These findings show that infection induces antibodies capable of killing infected cells...

Solar panels are contagious - but in a good way

The number of solar panels within shortest distance from a house is the most important factor in determining the likelihood of that house having a solar panel, when compared with a host of socio-economic and demographic variables. This is shown in a new study by scientists using satellite and census data of the city of Fresno in the US, and employing machine learning.

Bypassing broken genes

A new approach to gene editing using the CRISPR/Cas9 system bypasses disease-causing mutations in a gene, enabling treatment of genetic diseases linked to a single gene, such as cystic fibrosis, certain types of sickle cell anemia, and other rare diseases. The method involves inserting a new, fully functional copy of the gene that displaces the mutated gene.