270 articles from MONDAY 9.3.2020

Collective dynamics of active matter systems

A study provides new details about the collective motion of individual agents in a liquid-crystal-like system, which could help in better understanding bacterial colonies, structures and systems in the human body, and other forms of active matter.

Study reveals collective dynamics of active matter systems

Flocks of starlings that produce dazzling patterns across the sky are natural examples of active matter—groups of individual agents coming together to create collective dynamics. In a study featured on the cover of the March 6 issue of the journal Science, a team of researchers that includes Brown University physicists reveals new insights into what happens inside active matter systems.

'Deceptively simple' process could boost plastics recycling

Plastics are a victim of their own success, so inexpensive, easy to use and versatile that the world is awash in plastic waste. Now researchers from the University of Houston have reported a new method of producing polyolefins—made from hydrocarbons and the most common building block of plastics—structured to address one of the biggest stumbling blocks to plastics recycling.

How a virus forms its symmetric shells

Viruses—small disease-causing parasites that can infect all types of life forms—have been well studied, but many mysteries linger. One such mystery is how a spherical virus circumvents energy barriers to form symmetric shells.

Discovery points to origin of mysterious ultraviolet radiation

Billions of lightyears away, gigantic clouds of hydrogen gas produce a special kind of radiation, a type of ultraviolet light known as Lyman-alpha emissions. The enormous clouds emitting the light are Lyman-alpha blobs (LABs). LABs are several times larger than our Milky Way galaxy, yet were only discovered 20 years ago. An extremely powerful energy source is necessary to produce this...

Climate variations may impact the base of the food web along the California coast

In a recent study published in Marine Ecology Progress Series, researchers at California Polytechnic State University revealed that in addition to seasonal changes in winds and ocean temperatures, natural climate cycles greatly influenced the base of the food web at the Cal Poly Pier in San Luis Obispo Bay, an embayment located in Central California in the California Current Large Marine...

Male size advantage drives evolution of sex change in reef fish

Some species of fish, notably parrotfish and wrasses living on coral reefs, change their biological sex as they age, beginning life as females and later becoming functionally male. New work from the University of California, Davis, shows that this sequential hermaphroditism evolves when bigger males gain an advantage in reproductive success—for example by defending a permanent mating territory.

Coronavirus sufferers symptom-free for five days on average – study

Findings suggest the 14-day quarantine period used around world strikes a good balance Coronavirus – live updatesPeople infected with coronavirus are symptom-free for an average of five days, according to a study that reinforces the need for strict quarantine measures.The analysis found that 5.1 days was the median length of time before people started showing signs of illness, although there was...

Discovery points to origin of mysterious ultraviolet radiation

Lyman-alpha blobs (LABs) are gigantic clouds of hydrogen gas that produce a special type of ultraviolet light known as Lyman-alpha emission. An extremely powerful energy source must produce this radiation, but scientists debate what that energy source is. A study of Lyman-alpha blob 6 (LAB-6) is the first LAB with strong evidence of an infalling gas feature. The findings suggest that star-forming...

How a virus forms its symmetric shells

Viruses have been well studied, but many mysteries linger. One such mystery is how a spherical virus circumvents energy barriers to form symmetric shells. A research team has made progress is solving this mystery. The team reports that an interplay of energies at the molecular level makes the formation of a shell possible.

Male size advantage drives evolution of sex change in reef fish

Some species of fish, notably parrotfish and wrasses living on coral reefs, change their biological sex as they age, beginning life as females and later becoming functionally male. New work shows that this sequential hermaphroditism evolves when bigger males gain an advantage in reproductive success -- for example by defending a permanent mating territory.

Gene therapy reverses heart failure in mouse model of Barth syndrome

Barth syndrome is a rare genetic disease in boys that can cause life-threatening heart failure and also weakens the skeletal muscles and the immune system. There is no specific treatment, but new research, involving new mouse models, shows the potential of a gene therapy approach in preventing and reversing cardiac dysfunction in Barth syndrome.