231 articles from MONDAY 6.7.2020

Nematode has potential to reduce cotton yields by 50 percent

The reniform nematode is one of the most commonly found pests of cotton, with the ability to cause severe economic damage. In order to assess exactly how much damage the reniform nematode can cause, plant pathologists at Auburn University conducted a field trial comparing a clean field to a reniform-infested field.

Neurobiology -- How much oxygen does the brain need?

The brain has a high energy demand and reacts very sensitively to oxygen deficiency. Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich neurobiologists have now succeeded for the first time in directly correlating oxygen consumption with the activity of certain nerve cells.

New guideline: Don't routinely screen for EAC in patients with chronic GERD

A new guideline from the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care, based on a rigorous systematic review of the latest evidence, found no benefit of routine screening for esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and precursor conditions (Barrett esophagus and dysplasia) in patients with chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The guideline, published in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association...

New high proton conductors with inherently oxygen deficient layers open sustainable future

Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) and the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), discover a new family of high proton-conducting materials -- 'the hexagonal perovskite-related oxides' -- and shed light on the underlying mechanisms responsible for their conductivity. Their findings lead the way to uncovering other similar materials, furthering the...

New insights into van der Waals materials found

Layered van der Waals materials are of high interest for electronic and photonic applications, according to researchers at Penn State and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, in California, who provide new insights into the interactions of layered materials with laser and electron beams.

New study resolves mystery surrounding unique light-harvesting structures in algae

Photosynthesis is a biochemical process that converts solar energy into chemical energy, releasing oxygen into the atmosphere. This process is highly complex and requires various combinations of proteins that work in tandem. However, details regarding the structures of these molecules in some organisms have remained poorly understood. Now, scientists in Japan have shed light on the structural...

New vitamin K-based drug shows promise against medication-resistant epilepsy

Medical University of South Carolina researchers have designed a new vitamin K-based compound that shows excellent seizure-control properties, even in preclinical models of medication-resistant seizures. Over 1 million people in the US suffer from medication-resistant epilepsy, contending with poor quality of life due to unpredictable seizures. This vitamin K analog, with its unique structure and...

Norman Conquest of 1066 did little to change people's eating habits

Archaeologists from Cardiff University and the University of Sheffield have combined the latest scientific methods to offer new insights into life during the Norman Conquest of England.Until now, the story of the Conquest has primarily been told from evidence of the elite classes of the time. But little has been known about how it affected everyday people's lives.

NYUAD researchers study effects of cellular crowding on the cell's transport system

In the recent study Macromolecular crowding acts as a physical regular of intracellular transport, published in the journal Nature Physics, lead researcher and Assistant Professor of Physics at NYU Abu Dhabi George Shubeita and his team present the findings that in a native cell environment, which is crowded with a high concentration of macromolecules, the crowding significantly impacts the speed...

One million epilepsy patients in China missing out on beneficial surgery

In 2010, Professor Patrick Kwan from Monash University's Department of Neuroscience, led an international team researching the causes and outcomes of epilepsy patients in rural China. A decade later the results indicate that at least one million Chinese people with epilepsy could be candidates for a standard operation that may leave them seizure-free.

Order from noise: How randomness and collective dynamics define a stem cell

Without stem cells, human life would not exist. Due to them, a lump of cells becomes an organ, and a fertilized egg develops into a baby. But what actually makes a stem cell? Are these a stable population of specially gifted cells? Scientists at the Institute of Science and Technology (IST) Austria discovered that instead, stem cells might emerge due to the collective behavior of cells within the...

Owner behavior affects effort and accuracy in dogs' communications

Researchers from the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History and Friedrich Schiller University in Jena have found that dogs adapt their communicative strategies to their environment and that owner behavior influences communicative effort and success. Experimental results found no evidence that dogs rely on communication history or follow the principle of least effort and suggest that...

Palm trees most abundant in American rainforests

Characteristics of palm trees differ from those of other tropical trees in many ways. In a major new study led by scientists at Uppsala University, Sweden, and University of Campinas, Brazil, they have surveyed the actual numbers of palms in tropical rainforests around the globe. The proportion of palm trees is important to include in calculations of forests' potential carbon storage and in...

Physics -- Bubbling and burping droplets of DNA

Liquid droplets formed from DNA display a peculiar response to enzymes. An international collaboration between Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich and UCSB has now been able to explain the mechanisms behind bubble formation.

Real-time monitoring of proteins in the nuclear pore complex

Researchers at Kanazawa University report in Biomaterials a high-speed atomic-force microscopy study of protein filaments in the nuclear pore complex. The visualization in real-time of the filaments' dynamics is an important step in our understanding of molecular transport mechanisms between a cell nucleus and its surrounding medium.

Regenerating the body from within using biomaterials

Successful tissue regeneration can have major benefits in healing injuries or replacing portions of diseased or damaged tissue But the effectiveness of the body's own system for repairing such damage can vary greatly. In a recent publication in Nature Reviews Materials, Ali Khademhosseini, Ph.D., Director and CEO of the Terasaki Institute, and colleagues discuss the use of biomaterials, which...