363 articles from THURSDAY 9.7.2020

Neonatal exposure to antigens of commensal bacteria promotes broader immune repertoire

Researchers have added fresh evidence that early exposure to vaccine-, bacterial- or microbiota-derived antigens has a dramatic effect on the diversity of antibodies an adult mammal will have to fight future infections by pathogens. This antibody diversity is called the clonal repertoire -- basically different single cells with distinct antibody potential that can multiply into a large clone of...

A complex gene program initiates brain changes in response to cocaine

Researchers used single-nucleus RNA sequencing to compare transcriptional responses to acute cocaine in 16 unique cell populations from the brain nucleus accumbens. The atlas is part of a major study that used multiple cutting-edge technologies to describe a dopamine-induced gene expression signature that regulates the brain's response to cocaine. The study shows neurobiological processes that...

New evidence of long-term volcanic, seismic risks in northern Europe

An ancient European volcanic region may pose both a greater long-term volcanic risk and seismic risk to northwestern Europe than scientists had realized, geophysicists report. The densely populated area is centered in the Eifel region of Germany, and covers parts of Belgium, the Netherlands, France and Luxembourg.

CT of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) versus CT of influenza virus pneumonia

A new article investigating the differences in CT findings between coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pneumonia and influenza virus pneumonia found that most lesions from COVID-19 were located in the peripheral zone and close to the pleura, whereas influenza virus was more prone to show mucoid impaction and pleural effusion. The more important role of CT during the present pandemic is in finding...

A new role for a tiny linker in transmembrane ion channels

In the molecular-level world of ion channels—passageways through membranes that carry signals in a cell's environment and allow it to respond—researchers have debated about the role of a small piece of the channel called a linker, says computational biophysicist Jianhan Chen at the University of Massachusetts Amherst.

Spacewatch: Nasa asteroid mission passes key milestone

Design review stage passed for craft intended to visit iron-and-nickel mini-world in 2022Nasa’s mission to explore a metal-rich asteroid passed a key milestone in its development this week. The critical design review makes sure everyone is satisfied that the spacecraft will work as expected. Now that the review has been passed, engineers can begin making the various bits of spacecraft hardware...

Study finds food safety practices benefit small farmers

The costs of implementing food safety practices to prevent foodborne illnesses have been viewed as a threat to the financial well-being of small farms, which must pay a higher percentage of their annual sales than larger farms to meet safety standards.

Bats offer clues to treating COVID-19

Bats are often considered patient zero for many deadly viruses affecting humans, including Ebola, rabies, and, most recently, the SARS-CoV-2 strain of virus that causes coronavirus.

Study looks at life inside and outside of seafloor hydrocarbon seeps

Microbial cells are found in abundance in marine sediments beneath the ocean and make up a significant amount of the total microbial biomass on the planet. Microbes found deeper in the ocean, such as in hydrocarbon seeps, are usually believed to have slow population turnover rates and low amounts of available energy, where the further down a microbe is found, the less energy it has available.

Covid-19 cases tied to fraternity parties disrupt UC Berkeley’s reopening plans

Forty-seven cases make it ‘harder to imagine bringing our campus community back’ as planned, university saysPlans for the fall semester at the University of California, Berkeley, are in question after 47 new Covid-19 cases tied to fraternity parties emerged in the past week. University officials warn the outbreak could jeopardize the ability to move forward with in-person classes in the months...

Study identifies unique cells that may drive lung fibrosis

This is one of the first comprehensive looks at lung cells using a technology called single-cell RNA sequencing. Instead of examining a mash-up of many cells from a tissue sample, single-cell sequencing allowed researchers in this study to closely examine the individual cells that make up the lungs; to identify their function, and ultimately understand the molecular changes that may be driving the...

Ways to keep buildings cool with improved super white paints

Materials scientists have demonstrated ways to make super white paint that reflects as much as 98% of incoming heat from the sun. The advance shows practical pathways for designing paints that, if used on rooftops and other parts of a building, could significantly reduce cooling costs, beyond what standard white 'cool-roof' paints can achieve.