333 articles from WEDNESDAY 2.9.2020

Satellite mega-constellations risk ruining astronomy forever

The astronomy community is on edge. The growing number of satellites streaming through low Earth orbit is making it almost impossible to get a clear view of the sky.  The true threat these mega-constellations pose to the astronomy community is only just beginning to be understood. A report released last week by the American Astronomical Society concluded that they will...

An unprecedented discovery of cell fusion

Like humans, bacteria live together in communities, sometimes lending a hand—or in the case of bacteria, a metabolite or two—to help their neighbors thrive. Understanding how bacteria interact is critical to solving growing problems such as antibiotic resistance, in which infectious bacteria form defenses to thwart the medicines used to fight them.

New study shows birds can learn from others to be more daring

House sparrows can be found on nearly every continent including North America, South America, Africa and Australia, where they are not native but an invasive species. New research into these highly social songbirds reveals that they can learn from each other and adapt their behavior.

Biological control agents can protect soybeans from sudden death syndrome

Sudden death syndrome (SDS) is one of the most destructive diseases of soybean, with losses of nearly 1.7 million metric tons in 2014. The disease is especially severe in the Midwest and North-Central regions, where conditions of high soil humidity and cold weather help the disease grow. SDS is difficult to control as current management practices, which include using fungicide seed treatments and...

Globalization is reweaving the web of life

As introduced species spread around the world, the complex networks of interactions between plants and animals within ecosystems are becoming increasingly similar, a process likely to reinforce globalization's imprint on nature and increase risks of sweeping ecological disruption.

Researcher proposes universal mechanism for ejection of matter by black holes

Black holes can expel a thousand times more matter than they capture. The mechanism that governs both ejection and capture is the accretion disk, a vast mass of gas and dust spiraling around the black hole at extremely high speeds. The disk is hot and emits light as well as other forms of electromagnetic radiation. Part of the orbiting matter is pulled toward the center and disappears behind the...

NASA catches formation of Atlantic's record-breaking 15th tropical storm

Tropical Depression 15 strengthened into a tropical storm late on Sept. 1 and was renamed Omar. Visible imagery from NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite was compiled into an animation that showed the system's formation and strengthening. NASA's Terra satellite also provided temperature data on Omar that revealed wind shear was affecting the storm.

Gut microbiome composition is associated with age and memory performance in pet dogs

Our gut microbiota can crucially influence our behavior and neurodevelopment. New research from the Ethology Department at the Faculty of Science at Eötvös Loránd University indicates that dogs' aging mechanism and memory performance are also linked to their gut microbiome composition. According to the study, dogs and humans may have similar mechanisms in cognitive aging.

Oldest radiocarbon dated temperate hardwood tree in the world discovered in southern Italy

Radiocarbon dating of five large and potentially old sessile oaks from Aspromonte National Parks has revealed a long lifespan ranging from 934 ± 65 to 570 ± 45 years. For a long time, majestic oaks have been considered a symbol of longevity, and this study proves that a millennium age horizon is attainable longevity in angiosperms growing at high-elevation belt in Mediterranean mountains of...

Regional variations in freshwater overconsumption

Freshwater—which falls to the earth as precipitation or exists beneath the surface as groundwater—is desperately needed to sustain people, plants and animals. With an ever-increasing human population, water shortages are already occurring in many areas are only expected to get worse. Now, researchers reporting in ACS' Environmental Science & Technology have estimated the freshwater supply and...

Paper ballots, risk-limiting audits can help defend elections and democracy, study finds

With just over two months before the 2020 election, three professors at the Indiana University Kelley School of Business offer a comprehensive review of how other nations are seeking to protect their democratic institutions and presents how a multifaceted, targeted approach is needed to achieve that goal in the U.S., where intelligence officials have warned that Russia and other rivals are again...

A new way of modulating color emissions from transparent films

Scientists are looking at luminescent transparent films for use in energy-efficient displays (such as LED screens) and other applications, and the possibilities it opens up for advancing methodologies in several fields of biological and electronics research. However, although multicolor-emitting transparent solid films have been developed, finding efficient ways to tune the color and intensity of...

An unprecedented discovery of cell fusion

Understanding how bacteria interact is critical to solving growing problems such as antibiotic resistance, in which infectious bacteria form defenses to thwart the medicines used to fight them. Researchers have discovered that bacterial cells from different species can combine into unique hybrid cells by fusing their cell walls and membranes and sharing cellular contents, including proteins and...

Study examines the benefits of virtual stroke rehabilitation programs

While virtual medical and rehabilitation appointments seemed novel when COVID-19 first appeared, they now seem to be part of the new norm and might be paving the way to the future. A recent review paper has determined that virtual appointments, in the form of telerehabilitation, also work for people recovering from a stroke.

Using tattoo ink to find cancer

The humble ink in a tattoo artist's needle could be the key to improving the detection of cancer. Researchers recently developed new imaging contrast agents using common dyes such as tattoo ink and food dyes. When these dyes are attached to nanoparticles, they can illuminate cancers, allowing medical professionals to better differentiate between cancer cells and normal adjacent cells.