6,685 articles mezi dny 1.10.2020 a 31.10.2020

Study reveals element in blood is part of human--and hibernating squirrel--stress response

A new study published in the journal Critical Care Explorations shows for the first time that part of the stress response in people and animals involves increasing the levels of a naturally circulating element in blood. The discovery demonstrates a biological mechanism that rapidly responds to severe physiologic stress and potentially serves to protect us from further damage due to...

Study: Unnecessary stress testing performed prior to knee and hip replacement surgeries

A new study out of the University of Chicago Medicine shows the overall rate of preoperative stress testing for hip and knee replacements is and has been decreasing consistently since 2006. Still, researchers found, 30,000 out of every 100,000 stress tests performed each year were unnecessary, as the tests didn't decrease the frequency of complications such as heart attacks or stopped hearts.

Survey finds American support for human-animal chimera research

In September 2015, the US National Institutes of Health placed a funding moratorium on research that involves introducing human pluripotent stem cells into animal embryos. To assess attitudes on human-animal chimeric embryo research, investigators conducted a survey among 430 Americans. The results of the survey, which found that 82% of people are supportive of at least some parts of this...

TGen and HonorHealth study suggests alternative method of diagnosing lung infection

As ventilator use in hospitals skyrockets during the COVID-19 pandemic, results of a study by the Translational Genomics Research Institute, City of Hope, HonorHealth Research and Innovation Institute, and the University of Arizona suggests a better way to diagnose ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The findings of this study, which was supervised by Patrick Pirrotte, Ph.D., Director of TGen's...

The development of climate security discourse in Japan

This research traced discourses related to climate security in Japan to determine why so little exists in Japan and whether or not such discourse could suggest new areas for consideration to more comprehensively respond to the climate change problem. Based on categorization of various approaches by climate security-related literature outside Japan, the study revealed areas where Japan has been...

The most sensitive optical receivers yet for space communications

Communications in space demand the most sensitive receivers possible for maximum reach, while also requiring high bit-rate operations. A novel concept for laser-beam based communications, using an almost noiseless optical preamplifier in the receiver, was recently demonstrated by researchers at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.

Timing the life of antimatter particles may lead to better cancer treatment

Experts in Japan have devised a simple way to glean more detailed information out of standard medical imaging scans. A research team made up of atomic physicists and nuclear medicine experts has designed a timer that can enable PET scanners to detect the oxygen concentration of tissues throughout patients' bodies. This upgrade to PET scanners may lead to a future of better cancer treatment by...

Tool helps clear biases from computer vision

Researchers at Princeton University have developed a tool that flags potential biases in sets of images used to train artificial intelligence (AI) systems. The work is part of a larger effort to remedy and prevent the biases that have crept into AI systems that influence everything from credit services to courtroom sentencing programs.

Tumor progression depends on the tumor microenvironment

Researchers from Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU) and Niigata University identified a novel mechanism by which tumors progress. By studying the role of TNF-α and TGF-β in the formation of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), the researchers found that both proteins together exert a robust effect on the development of CAFs. They further found that oral cancer cells show...

Tunable free-electron X-ray radiation from van der Waals materials

The suggested apparatus produces controlled radiation with a narrow spectrum that can be tuned with high resolution, at a relatively low energy investment. The findings are likely to lead to breakthroughs in a variety of fields, including the analysis of chemicals and biological materials, medical imaging, X-ray equipment for security screening, and other uses of accurate X-ray sources

Two molecular handshakes for hearing

Scientists have mapped and simulated those filaments at the atomic level, a discovery that shed lights on how the inner ear works and that could help researchers learn more about how and why people lose the ability to hear.

Ultrasensitive microwave detector developed

A joint international research team from POSTECH of South Korea, Raytheon BBN Technologies, Harvard University, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the U.S., Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology in Spain, and the National Institute for Materials Science in Japan have together developed ultrasensitive sensors that can detect microwaves with the highest theoretically possible...

Using machine learning to predict pediatric brain injury

When newborn babies or children with heart or lung distress are struggling to survive, doctors often turn to a form of life support that uses artificial lungs. This treatment, called Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO), has been credited with saving countless lives. But in some cases, it can also lead to long-term brain injury.

Why do people respond differently to the same drug?

Scientists at Scripps Research have comprehensively mapped how a key class of proteins within cells regulates signals coming in from cell surface receptors. The study reveals that people commonly have variants in these proteins that cause their cells to respond differently when the same cell receptor is stimulated--offering a plausible explanation for why people's responses to the same drugs can...

Why drugs sometimes cause receptor potentiation rather than inhibition

In order to treat certain brain diseases more precisely and with fewer side effects, researchers are focusing on drugs that only inhibit distinct subtypes of the receptors responding to the neurotransmitter glutamate. However, under certain conditions, such drugs can elicit the opposite effect: Rather than inhibiting the receptors as desired, they potentiate their activity.

Why writing by hand makes kids smarter

New brain research shows that writing by hand helps children learn more and remember better. At the same time, schools are going more and more digital, and a European survey shows that Norwegian children spend the most time online of 19 countries in the EU.

Would menthol cigarettes be banned if the typical consumer was young, white and upper-middle class?

Menthol could be exacerbating deep social inequities according to a paper just published. Researchers at Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health and colleagues at CUNY and Rutgers School of Public Health suggest that a ban on menthol cigarettes could have monumental implications for both the short- and long-term physical and mental health of communities of color.