305 articles from THURSDAY 10.6.2021

New family of atomic-thin electride materials discovered

An exploratory investigation into the behavior of materials with desirable electric properties has resulted in the discovery of a structural phase of two-dimensional (2D) materials. The new family of materials are electrides, wherein electrons occupy a space usually reserved for atoms or ions instead of orbiting the nucleus of an atom or ion. The stable, low-energy, tunable materials could have...

Butterflies and moths have difficulty adjusting to a rapidly changing climate

Climate change exerts great pressure for change on species and biodiversity. A recent study conducted by the University of Helsinki and the Finnish Environment Institute indicates that the few moth and butterfly species (Lepidoptera) capable of adjusting to a changing climate by advancing their flight period and moving further north have fared the best in Finland. In contrast, roughly 40% of...

How do plants balance microbial friends and foes?

Plants are constantly exposed to microbes: Pathogens that cause disease, commensals that cause no harm or benefit, and mutualists that promote plant growth or help fend off pathogens. For example, most land plants can form positive relationships with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to improve nutrient uptake. How plants fight off pathogens without also killing beneficial microbes or wasting energy on...

Butterflies and moths have difficulty adjusting to a rapidly changing climate

Climate change exerts great pressure for change on species and biodiversity. A recent study indicates that the few moth and butterfly species (Lepidoptera) capable of adjusting to a changing climate by advancing their flight period and moving further north have fared the best in Finland. In contrast, roughly 40% of Lepidoptera species have not been able to respond in either way, seeing their...

Study sheds light on treatment options for devastating childhood brain cancer

Research suggests that children with average risk medulloblastoma can receive radiation to a smaller volume of the brain at the end of a six-week course of treatment and still maintain the same disease control as those receiving radiation to a larger area. But the dose of preventive radiation treatments given to the whole brain and spine over the six-week regimen cannot be reduced without reducing...

Forget me not: Novel target shows promise in treating Alzheimer's and related dementias

Researchers have identified a previously unknown early driver of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD). They report high levels of cis P-tau, a pathogenic protein, in human AD and VaD brains as well as preclinical disease models. Treatment with an antibody to the toxic protein prevented disease progression and reversed disease symptoms and restored cognitive function in older mice.

Music listening near bedtime disruptive to sleep

Most people listen to music throughout their day and often near bedtime to wind down. But can that actually cause your sleep to suffer? When a sleep researcher realized he was waking in the middle of the night with a song stuck in his head, he saw an opportunity to study how music -- and particularly stuck songs -- might affect sleep patterns.

Machine learning model doubles accuracy of global landslide 'nowcasts'

Every year, landslides—the movement of rock, soil, and debris down a slope—cause thousands of deaths, billions of dollars in damages, and disruptions to roads and power lines. Because terrain, characteristics of the rocks and soil, weather, and climate all contribute to landslide activity, accurately pinpointing areas most at risk of these hazards at any given time can be a challenge. Early...

Novel liquid crystal metalens offers electric zoom

Researchers from Cornell University's School of Applied and Engineering Physics and Samsung's Advanced Institute of Technology have created a first-of-its-kind metalens—a metamaterial lens—that can be focused using voltage instead of mechanically moving its components.